Western Civ Midterm

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Royal Absolutism
1640-1700, overlaps Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
1560-1648
Overlaps Absolutism
Enlightenment
1750-1789
Mercantilism/Colonialism
1700-1750
French Revolution + Napoleon
1789-1830
Industrial Revolution
1830-1850
Liberalism/Domesticity
1815/50-1900s
Nationalism
1850-1870
Define Nationalism. What is Civic Nationalism? Romantic/Ethnic Nationalism? What time period did this take place?
-Common language, shared cultural tradition, same religion, minority left out
-Civic = Liberal notion of a “people” loyalty to state makes you a citizen, uniformity, language can be a barrier
-Ethnic/Romantic = Emphasis on feeling/identity, Have to be in ethnic group to be apart of nation, blood trumps civic nationalism
-Liberalism/Nationalism period, 1815-1900
Darwinism? Social Darwinism? Difference between them?
-Darwinism = Attempted to explain natural occurrences such as evolution through scientific observation
-Social Darwinism = Individual groups and ppl subject to natural selection + survival of the fittest. Weak (poor) will die, strong (rich) will survive.
-Darwinism is a fact, Social Darwinism is a Naturalistic Fallacy/Psuedoscience
How was Russia doing during the 18th century?
Sucking. Lost Crimean war, agriculture slump, economic crisis, youth rebelled, anarchist movement. Youth Nihilists, Russification attempted.
Religion in the 18th century?
Private. Utilitarianism = Don’t need bible to be a good person. People valued nationalism and unity over religion.
Women during Nationalism period?
Started to become teachers/nurses. Education also better even though poor still couldn’t really afford it and relied on traveling tutors and book clubs.
Main concepts of Nightingale and when it was written
-Liberalism period (1815-1900).
-Women are passive, granted moral activity, passion, intellect by god but are oppressed by family and society and even themselves and can’t use it.
-Only excuses to work are illness, widowhood, need to make money
-Time is valuable unless you’re a woman
-“Duties” forbid light of intellect
-Marriage is like a trap for women even though it’s considered freedom
-Only real freedom is death
1848 Revolution
Liberalism period. Only GB and Russia still intact. Gov corrupt, no suffrage for lower classes, Napoleon III made ruler of France
Putting Out System- What is it? What is it otherwise known as?
Factories sent materials to the home where the women, children, family could work. Not as secure as working factory job, could be fired at any time.
-Also known as protoindustrialization, intensification of tradition forms of work output. Did not work for industries such as mining.
Define Liberalism, Urbanization, Socialism, Imperialism
Liberalism- Free market + Enlightenment Ideals
Urbanization- Growth due to movement from rural to urban ares (increase of pop, made slums, Industrial Revolution 1830-1850)
Socialism- Aimed to restore harmony + cooperation among capitalist and working classes thru social reorganization
-Imperialism- Indirect forms of economic exploitation and political rule
Transformation of Agriculture in Industrial Revolution? Discipline in Factories?
-Agriculture: Irrigation techniques improved, scientific inventions, more food, more cattle, nutrition better, but infant mortality rate rose
-Discipline: Time became very relevant, families docked pay for lateness, work at machine’s pace
Gender Differences in Industrial RevolutionBiggest IndustriesNew Inventions?
Men = Public Sphere. Women = Domestic sphere unless they needed to work for money.
Textiles, railroads, agriculture, factories
Spinning jenny, cotton gin, steam engine
Working class? Factory act of ___
Working Class- Laborers in new factories, worked 12-17 hrs a day, created new labor unions
1833- Children >9 no work. 9-13 = 9 hour days. 13-18 = 12 hour days
Main reasons for French Revolution and year
1789.
Debt due to supporting Americans overseas. Peasants being taxed, upper classes relieved.
Marie Antoinette was a heartless bitch. Louis XVI more interested in his image to pay attention to peasants. Generals estate voted by order instead of by head- Third estate was 95% of population and poor and did not receive fair vote.
Main parts of French Revolution
-Third Estate = 95% of population. Working class, merchants. MEN. Those who contribute to society are citizens, those who do not are not.
-New Constitution focused on rights of man (thanks to Nat’l Assembly), women unincluded, De Gouges wrote response and was executed.
-Rebellions from both upper class and lower class. THE TERROR = Unreliable peasants, officials, clergy executed. 20 executions per day-Reorganization of Catholic Church and royal family fled, Louis killed
Napoleon steps in and does…
-Helps otherwise weakened army from emigration/poor treatment
-Crowns self emperor 1804
-Creates civil code w/respect to new constitution
-Exiles writers, does not like art but likes scientific inquiry
-Approves social mobility in army
-Conquers many states, tries for Russia but fails
-Exiled in Battle of Waterloo
French Revolution motto
“Liberty, equality, fraternity”
Define Atlantic System, Consumer Society, Agricultural Revolution, Mercantilism
Atlantic System- Web of trade routes that bound together W Europe, Africa, Americas (coffee, tea, sugar)
Consumer Society- Increased longevity, pop explosion, improved agricultural techniques, ordinary ppl got disposable income
Ag Rev-Increasingly aggressive attitudes toward investment and management (East only, West subsistence farmers)
Mercantilism- Tied to absolutism and state building, slave trade
*Royal treasury est to finance wars
*Capital obtained thru trade of luxury goods
*King protected merchandise from foreigners
*Tariffs, no manufacturing in US colonies
Describe slavery/worst plantations
-Slaves often sold by rival tribes
-1/4 died in transit
-Equiano said everyone was separated
-Sugar plantations were the hardest work in central America (San Domaine, Haitian Revolution occurred because of it against France)
British Naval Acts, Dutch East India Co? Gov functions? Most popular consumer products?
Mercantilism, 1700-1750
1: No foreign ships (targeted Dutch),
2: 3/4 crew English
3: EU goods bound for US shipped thru Eng first

JS Co, monopoly, buy/sell territories and initiate war, had military control over parts of asia, first to trade coffee

Gov functions:
1: Protect societies from invasion
2: Guard ppl from injustice
3: Maintain public work programs

Tobacco, sugar cane, cocoa, but weren’t mercantilist because they weren’t good for ppl + went against gov functions.

Define Enlightenment according to Kant and overview of main themes. Types of gov?
“Dare to Know”
-Attacked superstition, bigotry, religious fanaticism
-Reason, progress, hope, natural laws
-Abolitionists even though race introduced by Blumenbach
-Romanticism
-Free Market, checks and balances
-Education thru salons and coffee shops and print media for women
-Lower class more concerned w/ ongoing wars + population

-Types of gov: Republic=Held by ppl + elected repts, monarchy, despotism= exercise of absolute power

Religion v Science
Ptolemaic view = Sun revolves around earth
Heliocentrism (Galileo, Copernicus)= Earth revolves around sun, sent letter to Duchess Catherine of Tuscany
Exceptionalism
Secularization- Religion started to become more private than public as science became more popular
Normal people experienced science w/ telescopes, cabinets of curiosity. Shit at home gave women access to education
Natural Law governs politics, can exist w/out God, gov. needs to defend nat. rights, Grotius challenged use of torture in prisons
Math from Newton
Define absolutism, divine right, bureaucracy, patronage
Absolutism-A system of gov. in which the ruler claims sole and incontestable power
Divine right-Monarch divinely ordained by God, best gov. for human subjects.
Bureaucracy- Network of state officials carrying out orders according to a regular and routine line of authority
Patronage- Personal bonds based on politics, officials rose through ranks due to service to king
Louis XIV main points
Monarch responsibilities were
taxing, administering justice, making laws, foreign policy, facilitating instability

Took away power of nobles but placated them w/ patronage after they rebelled in The Fronde

Liked only catholicism, Edict of Nantes took away rights of calvinists, discriminated against minority religions

Started westward expansion to Canada

Calas Affair
Enlightenment. Voltaire helped to ban judicial use of torture
How did European states consolidate their power in the 16th and 17th centuries? How did this change, especially with the emergence of the Atlantic system (Triangular Trade) in the 18th century?
Power consolidated amongst nobles, kings, clergy, pretty much the upper two estates. Power given to clergy/king from god himself, power given to nobles by king. Louis tried to take it away, but the Fronde happened.
This changed in the 18th century when people really started to branch out. Consumer society increased Enlightenment ideals as more people began to grow prosperous from businesses and could afford sugar + tobacco. Became more educated from Enlightenment + Sci Revolution. Investors and merchants began to have more power as the upper classes relied on them for slaves, materials, money, etc. Eventually, the third estate would emerge during the French Revolution.
What were the ideas that emerged from the French Revolution of 1789? How did it influence Napoleon Bonaparte, insurgents in the Haitian Revolution, and the revolutionaries during the Revolutions of 1848?
-Third Estate
-New Constitution laid down the right of men
-De Gouges responded with the rights of women, but that was promptly ignored
-Napoleon used all of this to create his civil code. Men above women and children, employers above employees. Skill was also put into consideration when it came to the army, no longer about birth rights.
-In the Haitian Revolution, the slaves and free black men thought of themselves as the third estate and rebelled as such
In Cassandra, did Florence Nightingale challenge or affirm ideas about class, gender roles, and domesticity that remained popular during the Victorian age? What description of Victorian culture did she present?
Florence Nightingale challenged the ideas about class, gender roles, domesticity.
-Said that women were given the traits of moral activity, passion, intellect by God but that society and their family would not let them exercise it
-Thought all youth had dreams but that it was squashed by sense of domestic duties and dinner
-Said that time was important, but women’s time was taken for granted
-Wanted women to branch out, be more independent
-Hated double standards for men and women
-Said that both men and women were problem because women had become passive and men wanted to keep women in house so that it would be taken care of

-Represented self confidence, sensibility, moral/political concerns, self-awareness, romanticism, feminism, but did not support women suffrage

Compare the Scientific Revolution, the Age of Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. How did these developments transform the way people thought about and saw the world and imagined themselves, and why were they significant?
Scientific Revolution = Stopped being led like sheep, started to branch out and observe things empirically rather than hearing them in churches. Natural Law, don’t necessarily need government in general.
Age of Enlightenment = Reason, went away from church even more, attacked superstition and bigotry, thought more about abolition and natural rights of man, religion private affair, laissez faire, romanticism, checks and balances, free trade, blumenbach classification, women educated by print culture. Kind of started going away from monarchist gov in favor of self knowledge
Industrial Revolution = People really started providing for selves, stockholders important, scientific technology important, new machines, urbanization, valued nationalism more than impressing king, working classes revolted for more rights, valued each other. Want rights + constitution, fuck the monarchy.

Significant because it showed people considering how they wanted to be governed. According to Montesquie there were three types = Republic (YAY), Monarchy, Despotism and it was usually the latter two

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