ways words are changed (etymologically based)

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(requirements for an adequate definition)
-should be equivalent to the term
-give the essential characteristics
-simple and lear
-not negative
Back Formation
the creation of one word from another by the clipping off of a suffix (accretion-accrete)
the removal of a letter of syllable at the beginning of a word (account-count)
the clipping off of an unaccented vowel at the beginning of a word (adune-down)
words formed of bases from different languages
phonetic change of prefixes in front of bases to make a word easier to say. (ad- to aggravate)The base can also change. (sacr- to consecrate)
process by which two identical sounds are made unlike, or two similar sounds are made to diverge. (turtur – turtle)
-words that provide a variety of meanings due to their sensation in similar situations
-can be emotional, operational, or symbolic or metaphorical (bite, scratch, and bulldozer, and circus)
a word narrows its range of application (liqueur)
a word gets a broader meaning (decimate)
a word of very broad meaning branches out into several specific meanings with the same basic meaning (action)
functional change
without change in spelling the word changes part of speech
degeneration of meaning
a word that originally had a good meaning, now means something negative (villain, hussy)
elevation of meaning
words that once had a bad connotation, now are positive (fame, Lord)
change from abstract to concrete, and vice versa
-a word that originally referred to a state or quality may come to signify an act or object (multitude)
-vice versa (tragedy, tongue)
overused words become less forceful or vivd (nice, awesome)
exaggeration (i was bored to death)
change of meaning due to changing concepts
ie humor once meant four types of bodily liquids (phlegm, yellow bile, blood, black bile) that determined a persons demeanor but once proved wrong became “quality which excites amusement”
substituting a less direct phrase for a direct term (perspiration)
Taboo Deformation
unlucky or defensive term is disguised by mispronouncing it (god becomes golly, gosh, or gee)
a roundabout way of specking (data base = records)
folk etymology
making unfamiliar words resemble familiar words that appear to be related (female is really from femella/femina)

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