Test 1 Notes

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The word “mythology” breaks up into what two words?
“mythos” and “logos”
“Mythos” translates to mean what?
Story
“Logos” translates to mean…?
Word
We didn’t know much about Greek history until about what year?
2,000
We know a good bit about the _______, who were the people of Crete.
Minoans
The Minoans were non-Indo-European and matriarchal, which means what?
Matriarchal means that the women held the most power.
Indo-Europeans came into the region about when?
1600
The Indo-Europeans were patriarchal, which means what?
The men held the most power.
The Indo-Europeans are known as the early _______.
Greeks
Who was the Phoenician princess who Zeus impregnated and was the mom of Minos? This story was the beginning of the Minoans.
Europa
Who was the king of Crete and married Pasiphae, the immortal daughter of the sun-god Helios ?
Minos
Who placed a curse on Pasiphae for some offense that either she or her husband committed against the gods that caused her to fall in love with Minos’s finest bull?
Poseidon; he also sent the bull.
What did she give birth to after that?
Asterios (the starry one), or the Minotaur
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AAAAHHHHHH!!! EEEEEERRRR NEEEERRRRRRR….
____________ was the famous Indo-European city.
Mycenae
What is it called when a story explains something that occurs in nature?
etiology
What is any narrative or legend of heroic exploits?
Saga
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Crete
What was the main city of ancient Crete?
Knossos
When did the Indo-European Migration to ancient Greece take place?
1600 BC
Who discovered Mycenae?
Schliemann
______ __ and __ were two ancient Greek scripts.
Linear A and B
Which animal was considered to be sacred to Knossos?
The bull
When did the Trojan War take place, what was it over, and who fought in it?
1200 BC, the Trojans and the Greeks, a woman named Helen who was considered to be the most beautiful woman in the world at the time.
When did the storyteller Homer tell his famous epic story, and what was the name of that story?
The Illiad, 750 BC
When did the Greek alphabet first appear?
750 BC
When did Greece defeat Persia for the second time?
480 BC
When was the Golden Age of Greece?
500-400 BC
When did Alexander the Great rule?
330 BC
When did Rome take over Greece?
150 BC
___________ was a Greek philosopher who lived about 330-260 B.C. who is known mainly for using myths to understand historical events.
Euhemerus
______ was a Greek oral poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.His is the first European poetry in which the poet regards himself as a topic, an individual with a distinctive role to play.Ancient authors credited him and Homer with establishing Greek religious customs. Modern scholars refer to him as a major source on Greek mythology, farming techniques, early economic thought (he is sometimes identified as the first economist), archaic Greek astronomy and ancient time-keeping.
Hesiod
Psychologist who focuses on the unconscious mind.
Freud
Who was the Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology and one of the great explorers of the inner world of the psyche?
Carl Jung
Model that all other things follow.
archetype
_____ refers to the formless or void state preceding the creation of the universe or cosmos in the Greek creation myths, more specifically the initial “gap” created by the original separation of heaven and earth.
Chaos
Who, according to myth, was the first god (or goddess) to exist?
A goddess named Gaia (Earth)
Gaia had a son named _______.
Uranus (meaning Sky)
Uranus got his mom pregnant but then wouldn’t allow her to…?
give birth
What does Gaia finally have to do to give birth?
She gives Cronus a sickle to castrate Uranus the next last time he tried to have sex with her.
What creatures did Gaia give birth to?
3 Cyclopes, 3 One Hundred- Handers, and 12 Titans
Who were some of the 12 Titans?
Oceanus (god of the sea), Hyperion, Mnemosyne (Memory), the Muses, Rhea, and Cronus (Last to be born)
What did Cronus do with Uranus’ genitals after castrating them?
Tossed them into the sea
What happened after Cronus tossed his dad’s gens into the sea?
More gods were formed: Nymphs (forest goddesses), furies (goddesses of vengeance), Aphrodite (love goddess), etc.
Who became king of the gods after this?
Cronus
Who did Cronus marry?
His sister Rhea
What does Cronus do as his children are being born?
Swallows them
What happens when the last baby (Zeus) was born?
Rhea gives Cronus a rock, which he swallows thinking that it’s another baby.
What becomes of Zeus once he is born?
He is sent to Crete to grow up.
What happens next?
Cronus is given a potion that forces him to regurgitate the other gods.
Name the other gods that Cronus threw up.
Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera
He was the lord of light, and the Titan of the east; the physical incarnation of the Sun.
Hyperion
What happens after Zeus grows up?
He defeats Cronus and the 12 Titans.
What was Zeus’ primary weapon?
The lightning bolt
What became of Cronus?
He was sent to Elysium (paradise) to rule there as king.
Who challenges Zeus once he has defeated Cronus and the Titans?
Giants born from another castration and a dragon named Typhoeus (or Typhon).
What happens next?
Zeus defeats them and traps them beneath Mt. Etna, an active volcano.
Roman goddess equivalent to the Greek Gaia. Known as the “Great Mother”
Magma Mater
What major prophesy does the titan Prometheus give to Zeus?
That he will fall in love with a woman who will give birth to a son who would be “greater than his father”.
Who had Zeus recently impregnated when he got the news from Prometheus?
a woman named Metis
What did Zeus do then?
Swallowed Metis; XD
Who then is born out of Zeus’ head, and how?
Athena, by bursting out of it XD
Who would have the special baby? Who does she marry and was the baby’s name?
Thetis, marries Peleus and they have Achilles, the hero of the Trojan war.
Which part of the human mind, according to Freud, looks for pleasure?
Id
Which part, according to him, stifles desires?
Superego
Which part did he say balances desire and self-discipline?
Ego
What was Freud’s most famous concept of the development of the unconscious mind, and what did it involve?
Called the Oedipus Complex. States that boys will be sexually attracted to their moms and will be antagonistic towards their father as toddlers and eventually grow out of it, and the same for girls only towards their fathers.
List the Ages of Man as described in Ovid’s story, The Essential Metamorphosis.
1. Gold
2. Silver
3. Bronze
4. Iron
Describe the Golden Age of Man.
There was happiness, trust, loyalty, no laws or punishment, no threatening rules, men lived only on their own land,there was no crime or disease,and the land produced crops without being worked. Spring was the only season that existed.
Describe the Silver Age of Man.
Zeus added the other 3 seasons, so the crops no longer grew all year around; people were forced to take shelter in the cold weather, living in caves, and they had to learn how to work the land so that it would produce the crops. The need for oxen and cattle also came about.
Describe the Bronze Age of Man.
People were harsher and more ready to fight one another, but not exactly wicked.
Describe the Iron Age of Man.
All sins that exist today arose: greed, dishonesty, corruption, violence, crime, adultery, etc. Diseases spread and men started claiming territory and stealing the property and resources of less powerful races.
Who, according to Ovid’s story, created man?
The Titan Prometheus. Prometheus means forethought. He was a prophet.
According to Aeschylus’ story, Prometheus Bound, what happened that got Prometheus in trouble?
He tells men who were giving meat to Zeus to trick him into taking the bad meat cuts, and Zeus found out and punished man by taking away their fire. Prometheus stole some fire from the Sun and gave it to man.
What does Zeus then do to punish Prometheus?
Sends the blacksmith Hephaestus, to nail Prometheus to a rock and sends an eagle to eat out his liver every day (and it grows back completely at night).
What did Zeus do to punish mankind?
Gave them Pandora. XDD
Who had to receive Pandora on behalf of mankind?
Prometheus’ brother Epimetheus (name means afterthought)
What happened then with Pandora?
She came down to Earth, and Zeus gave her a box of evil things and told her not to open it. She did out of curiosity, and evil things were unleashed unto the world.
________ is the hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women.
Misogyny
The “Father of Tragedy,” he was born in 525 B.C. in the city of Eleusis. Immersed early in the mystic rites of the city and in the worship of the Mother and Earth goddess Demeter, he was once sent as a child to watch grapes ripening in the countryside. According to him, when he dozed off, Dionysus appeared to him in a dream and ordered him to write tragedies. So he began a tragedy the next morning and “succeeded very easily.” He lived until the year 456 B.C.
Aeschylus
Which nymph was raped by Zeus and turned into a cow when he hears his wife approaching and is then harassed by a thousand-eyed beast named Argos, which Hermes is sent to kill but then comes back to life as a gadfly, sent by Hera, and then is forced to roam the earth until she ends up at the Nile river in Egypt and finally Zeus admits to being unfaithful and turns her back human
Io ^_^
What etiology comes from Hermes killing Argos?
After killing the beast, Hermes placed its 1,000 eyes into the feathers of the peacock, which then became Hera’s favorite animal.
How many other parts are there to Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound? Are they with us?
2, no
Do we even just have small fragments of one of the other 2?
Yes; the last one, Prometheus Unbound.
What was it about Prometheus Bound that surprised scholars?
The play portrayed Zeus as a bad guy/bully when Aeschylus was known formally as being a devout worshiper of Zeus.
What were some theories that arose as a result of this confusion?
Some think that his grandson may have been the true author of the trilogy and others say that Zeus was probably a lot nicer in the last part of it.
How is Prometheus portrayed in Prometheus Bound?
The rebel hero, the savior of Man.
Who in the Christian Bible is Prometheus often compared to?
Jesus
Early plays usually had how many people speaking at one time?
Only 2
In Prometheus Bound, Aeschylus used plenty of ______ imagery.
animal
Give one example of animal imagery in Prometheus Bound.
Page 69, lines 106-108, “It was mortal man to whom I gave great privileges and for than I was yoked in this unyielding harness.
What does this particular use of animal imagery imply?
It implies that Zeus treated the other gods and all humans like animals.
What does Chorus represent in Prometheus Bound?
General wisdom and opinion about the situation.
What was Oceanus’ role in Prometheus Bound?
Foil, or the character who made Prometheus’ character stand out the most.
What child will Io have whom Prometheus predicts will free him from his bonds?
Heracles
Who does Prometheus get into a petty argument with and calls “the lackey of the Gods”?
Hermes
Why had Hermes come to the scene?
Zeus wanted Prometheus to tell him who would have a child that would drive him from power.
___________ is to portray deities as having human-like forms.
Anthropomorphism
List the 14 Olympian gods and goddesses.
Zeus, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Hestia, Demeter, Dionysus, Ares, Athena, Hermes, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Apollo, and Artemis.
Were the Greek gods and goddesses like the Christian God being all-knowing and omnipresent?
No
What did the gods eat and drink?
They ate ambrosia and drank nectar.
King of the gods and goddesses. The sky god. Main weapon: lightning bolt. Favorite animal: Eagle. Oak tree is sacred to him. Has many sexual affairs. Latin name is Jupiter.
Zeus
Who was Ganymede?
Zeus’ wine pourer and side-lover.
______ was the place where people worshipped Zeus.
Dodona
Where did Latin Olympic games take place usually?
Olympia
The goddess of family, marriage, and childbirth; a royal birtch; Zeus’ lovely wife; favorite city: Greek Argos; Favorite animal: Peacock; Latin name: Juno.
Hera
The goddess of the hearth and architecture; chronologically first to be born; both Poseidon and Apollo wanted to marry her but she swore to remain a virgin forever because she did not like the way Aphrodite slept around; she was said to have invented the art of building houses, that’s why she was given powers over the altars and shrines and the first prayers and the first share of the sacrifices were offered to her (the first, and also the last); Latin name: Vesta.
Hestia
God of the sea, horses, and earthquakes; primary weapon: the trident; would shake it when in a bad mood causing earthquakes and volcanoes to erupt; married to the sea-goddess Amphitrite; AKA “Earth-Shaker”; favorite city: Corinth; with Medusa he had Pegasus (the flying white horse), and with Amphitrite he had Triton (Little Mermaid’s dad); Latin name: Neptune.
Poseidon
God of the underworld; married to Persephone (Queen of the underworld); Latin name: Pluto.
Hades
Goddess of wisdom and warfare, and weaving; she was also the goddess of the arts and literature and a patron of the female arts and crafts. She was the protector of weavers, spinners, embroiderers; patron of the Greek city-state Athens after competing with Poseidon and giving them the olive tree; Latin name: Minerva.
Athena
_______ was Athena’s main temple of worship.
Parthenon
An ______ is a large collar or cape worn in ancient times to display the protection provided by a high religious authority or the holder of a protective shield. Athena was often seen wearing this.
aegis
_________ was the great weaver who bragged about her weaving abilities and Athena challenged her to a weaving contest. When she beat Athena at weaving, Athena got angry and turned her into a spider.
Arachne
Who was the blind prophet that walked up on Athena bathing in a forest one afternoon. She gave him prophesy because she felt bad about blinding him. XD
Tiresias
Tell the other story about Tiresias becoming a blind prophet.
Ti. got changed into a woman when he stupidly separated two mating snakes. He was turned back after repeating this some years later. In a quarrel btw Zeus and Hera abt whether men or women enjoy sex more, he then sided with Z, who felt that women do. Hera got angry and blinded him, but then Z felt bad and gave him prophesy.
___________ (AKA Octavian) was Rome’s first emperor. He appreciated fine literature, only more conservative, serious kind. He promoted strong family morals.
Augustus
_____ was exiled by Augustus for writing books about how to seduce women. He managed to write The Essential Metamorphosis prior to this, however, which is known for being funny.
Ovid
The ______ were the goddesses of music, song and dance, who inspired the artistic creation
Muses
During what age of man does Ovid depict bad things happening constantly and there being a desperate need for heroes?
The Iron Age of Man
What is something that characterizes Ovid’s narrative style in The Essential Metamorphosis?
The stories are connected all throughout the book.
What is something that Ovid’s and Haesiod’s stories about creation have in common?
They are both pretty chaotic.
Hubris (hybris) means what?
pride
Who was Lycaon?
A man who Zeus turned into a wolf because he tried to feed a human to Zeus when he came down in human form and showed off some of his power.Lycaon became the first example of a werewolf.
Goddess of love; married to Hephaestus; born from the sea when Cronos tossed Uranos’ genitals in there; famous affair with Ares (god of war); Latin name: Venus.
Aphrodite
Who did Aphrodite give birth to with Ares?
Eros
God of love; son of Aphrodite and Ares; Latin name: Cupid <3
Eros
Who did Aphrodite have with Hermes?
Hermaphroditus
What is a hermaphrodite?
Someone who has both sex organs.
Who did the gods fuse Hermaphroditus with after he had an affair with her?
The nymph named Salmacis
Who did Zeus make Aphrodite fall in love with because he was tired of her making him fall in love with so many different people?
A human shepherd named Anchises
Who did Aphrodite have in her union with Anchises?
Aeneas, who started the Roman empire
Once the women of _______ offended Aphrodite, which drove her to make all of the women become prostitutes.
Cyprus
One man of Cyprus name ____________, didn’t like the way the women were acting so he made a beautiful sculpture of a woman which he clothed and dressed with flowers and eventually even fell in love with.
Pygmalion
What happens next?
Pygmalion prays and asks Aphrodite to give him a wife that is just like his statue. Aphrodite grants him this wish directly by bringing his statue to life.
What did Pygmalion name his new wife?
Galatea
Who is the god of time?
Chronus
Who do Pygmalion and Galatea give birth to?
Adonis, who Aphrodite is quite fond of.
What are the two stories about what becomes of Adonis?
#1: That he is killed by a bear and comes back as a flower called anemone.
#2: Aphrodite is getting her hair done and asks Persephone to babysit Adonis. Persephone likes Adonis and doesn’t want to return him to Aphrodite. Zeus settled the dispute by allowing Adonis to stay with Aphrodite for half time and Persephone for half time.
Who wrote a play called “Pygmalion”?
George Bernard Shaw
Blacksmith god; unattractive; said to live on the island of Lemnos; when a certain volcano erupts there, people say that he is making something for the gods; husband of Aphrodite; Latin name: Vulcan.
Hephaestus
Dark side of war; opposite of Athena; had an affair with Aphrodite; god of war; Latin name: Mars.
Ares
Ares was depicted by the Romans as the what of their country?
father god
Who did Ares have in his union with the priestess Rhea Silvia?
Romulus and Remus
What is the story behind Romulus and Remus?
As soon as they were born, her husband abandoned them in a remote location. This practice was a form of quasi-infanticide tolerated in many ancient cultures, including the Roman and Greek, when children were unwanted. They were unwanted because Amulius was fearing that the boys would grow up to overthrow him, so he had them placed in a trough and thrown into the River Tiber. At that time the river was flooded and when the waters fell, the trough still containing the two boys, came ashore. They were found by a she-wolf, who instead of killing them, looked after them and fed them with her milk. The she-wolf was helped by a woodpecker who brought them food as well. Interesting enough both these animals were sacred to Mars.
Diana in Latin; virgin hunting goddess; hated all men; started a virgin women’s hunting club; fraternal twin of the god Apollo; also associated with the moon, magic, and witchcraft.
Artemis
Who was the queen with 7 sons and 7 daughters who were all very successful, and she was proud of them, so she told people to worship her instead of Leto (Artemis and Appollo’s mom)?
Niobe
What happens next to Niobe?
Leto gets pissed and sends Artemis and Apollo to kill all of Niobe’s kids. Niobe gets turned into a stone that always cries.
Who accidentally and unfortunately walked up on Artemis bathing in the forest? She got angry and splashed him and he turned into a deer. He and his brothers had been out hunting deer that day, so one of his brother’s dogs killed him?
Actaeon
Who was the really pretty virgin who got kicked out of Artemis’ womens’ club after being raped by Zeus and then becoming pregnant and unable to hide her pregnacy? Also how was Zeus able to get close to her?
Callisto; Zeus disguised himself as Artemis.
Who does Callisto have from her union with Zeus?
Arcas
What happens with Callisto and Arcas?
Hera turns her into a bear and she lives this way for 15 years without Arcas ever knowing. He almost shot her with one of his arrows one day while he was out hunting but Z stopped him and turned he and his mother into constellations.
What constellations did Zeus turn Callisto and Arcas into and how did Hera respond to this?
He turned Callisto into the Big Dipper and Arcas he turned into the Bear. Hera asked the ocean not to reflect their constellations. As a result (etiology) both constellations are up near the North Pole and so are not reflected by the ocean.
God of the sun, prophesy, art, music, medicine, poetry; fraternal twin of Artemis; often seen with a bow, lyre, and laurel on his head; Latin name: None (the Romans called him this).
Apollo
Apollo, when associated with the Sun, is known as ________.
Phoebus
______ was Apollo’s birthplace and where he killed the monster Python.
Delphi
Our word prophesy means what in Greek?
oracle
One oracle said the the philosopher Socrates was the smartest man in the world. Socrates stated then that he was only the wisest because…?
He didn’t claim to know everything.
Apollo is also known as the god of ____________.
rationality
What are Apollo’s two main rules?
#1: Have nothing in access (Don’t go too far in any direction)
#2: Know thyself (know your limitations)
___________ is a word that means moderation, discretion, and prudence.
Sophrosyne
Who was Cassandra?
Princess of Troy. Apollo offered her a gift because he liked her. She wanted prophesy, so he granted it to her and then asks her to sleep with him. She refuses though and so he curses her so that no one ever believes her predictions.
Apollo once had a friend named ________. They were throwing and catching a discus outside one day when Apollo accidentally hit his friend in the head and he dies and returns as a certain flower.
Hyacinth
Very fast; winged helmet and sandals; messenger of the gods; god of fertility; takes souls to the Underworld; very handsome; Latin name: Mercury.
Hermes
Who did Eros make Apollo fall in love with but made her hate him?
the river nymph Daphne
What is the name of the female messenger god that is not as well-known as Hermes?
Iris
___ was a goat-man god that was known for causing Panic. In the cartoon Hercules, he was called Phil.
Pan
Pan chased nymphs often. One nymph named ____; he chased her into some shepherds who, out of panic, ripped her up so that nothing was left of her but her voice. >_> (Bear with me here)
Echo
Once he chased another nymph named ______. She prayed to her sisters for help and so they changed her into some reeds, which Pan used to create a musical instrument that he named after her.
Syrinx
________ were goat men who were drunk and violent.
Satyrs
________ was the leader of the Satyrs.
Silenus
Who was the son of Helios and the Oceanid Clymene?
Phaethon
What do those two dots mean?
That the vowels are pronounced separately.
What is the story behind Phaëthon?
He was raised as a mortal and friend of Io’s son Epaphus, and no one believed that he was the son of Phoebus, or Apollo. So one day he came to Apollo and tells him this and Phoebus offers to give Pha;thon whatever he wanted to prove that he was a child of the Sun. Pha;thon asks to ride his father’s Chariot of Fire. So he gets to but, unable to handle the horses, sets the world ablaze and causes much destruction.
What happened next?
Zeus had to strike him down with a lightning bolt and kill him.
What happened to Phaëthon’s sisters, the Hesperian Naiads, after he died?
They cried over his death for 4 months until finally they all turned into trees that continuously dripped tears of amber.
What became of Cygnus?
He was transformed into a swan and only lived in still water and refused to fly and be close to Zeus who had unjustly killed his cousin (Phaethon).
__________ refers to a literary description of any work of art.
Ecphrasis
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Romulus and Remus
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Hermes
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Hyacinths
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Poseidon
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Apollo
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Poseidon riding the waves!!!
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Apollo and Daphne
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Aphrodite and Adonis
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Athena and her aegis
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Hera
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Achilles 😀
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Hades and Persephone
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Demeter
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Hades and Persephone again
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Prometheus

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