Roman Empire

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Tiberius Gracchus 163 – 133 BC
– Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune in 133
– Tiberius introduced land redistribution to veterans after the Punic wars, made it so the wealthy didnt ave it all
– Tiberius was killed in 133 but the law passed
– got support from populares
Gaius Gracchus 154-121 BC
– became tribune in 123
– extended Tiberius’ land reform and also pushes for grain distribution
– tried to offer citizenship to other cities in Italy
– committed suicide 123 BC
– the social wars start because of his ideas
– allies rise against Rome
– got support from populares
Gaius Marius 157 – 86 BC
– fought in social war against Italian allies with Sulla
– Marius become consul and greatly increases the size of the army
-begins land redistribution
– Marius bribes senate to let him lead an army
– got support from populares
Lucius Cornelius Sulla 138 – 78 BC
– fought in social war against Italian allies with Marius
-Sulla begins to gain favor of the senate
– Sulla, with the support of his troops, marches against Rome
– Sulla is victorious, but begins killing off senators who opposed Marius
– became first dictator in over 100 years
– institutes a lot of reforms, then resigns
– got support from optimates
– besieged Pompey in the social war
Gaius Julius Caesar 100- March 15, 44 BC reign 49-44
– from a patrician family, but gained power by appealing to lower classes
– As the nephew of Marius, he was persecuted by Sulla
– become consul in 59
– forms informal first trivirate with himself, Pompey and Crassus
– campaigns in Gaul and is recalled by Pompey
– Marches on Rome and defeats Pompey in civil war
– named dictator twice
– assassinated by Pompey sympathizers
– got support from populares
– wrote on the gallic war and civil war
– written as sources to later compose a bibliography
Cleopatra VII 69-30 BC
– pharaoh of Egypt
– lover of Caesar
– gave birth to Caesar’s son Caesarion
– has relationship with Antony
– battle of Actium 31
– runs to Alexandria and Antony follows
– commits suicide days after Antony
Marc Antony 83-30 BC
– general to Caesar
– seen as the next leader
– assumed control after Caesars death
– gave Caesars eulogy and forces conspirators out of Rome
– doesnt deal with realities of the Roman people
– fell out of favor while on campagin in the east
– delayed releasing Caesars money to citizens (Octavian sells most inheritance to cover the cost)
– part of second triumvirate (military)(formal legal pact)
– controlled Gaul and the East
– after Lex Pedius, convinces triumvirate to kill Cicero
– his army is very loyal to him
– battle of Philippi 42
– married to Octavia
– begins relationship with Cleopatra and has children with her
– marries cleopatra before divorcing Octavia
– triumvirate over in 32
– battle of actium 31
– troops start defecting because of hunger/disease and Antony with cleopatra
– Cleopatra tries to escape sea battle and Antony abandons troops and follows to Alexandria
– commits suicide
Marcus Junius Brutus 85-42
– the leader of the conspiracy against Caesar
– pursued by Octavian and Antony
– battle of Philippi 42
– defeated in open battle and kills self (end of the Republic)
Gaius Cassius Longinus 85-42 BC
– co-conspirator against Caesar
– pursued by Octavian and Antony
– Battle of Philippi 42
– 1st battle of Philippi kills self because he thinks Brutus has been killed
Marcus Tullius Cicero 106-43 BC
– a novus homo and optimate
– wanted to go back to old republican ways
– after Caesars death, beings campaigning to diminish Antonys power and increase Octavian’s
– killed in 43
– Cicero’s head and hands cut off and brought to the rostrum in the forum
– wrote a number of political, philosophical and rhetorical works
Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus 63-14 BC/AD reign 27-14 BC/AD
-Octavian is Caesars nephew (son of Atia, Caesars niece)
– not from a well known family
-gained favor of Caesar in Spain
-always sickly, not the hero – but knows the people
– stood out for intelligence
– had little fighting experience
-sails from Greece to Brundisium and finds he is Caesars heir
– sells most of his inheritance to give Caesars promised money to citizens
– Cicero helps him become consul in 43
– co-consul with Quintus Pedius (marched on Rome together)
– part of second triumvirate (consul)(formal legal pact)
– controlled Italy
– proscribes Cicero’s land and kills him
-his army is very loyal to him
– battle of Philippi 42
– Perusine war against Antonys brother Lucius, runs him out of Rome and doesnt punish him because Antony doesnt step in
– creates treaty of Misenum with Pompey Magnus 39
– treaty breaks down within a year and people defect to Octavian
– divorces Pompeys daughter Scribonia after she gives birth to Julia
– forces livia drusilla to marry him – her sons tiberius and drusus
– receives an oath of loyalty from all of Italy
– triumvirate over in 32 now officially a senator but still very popular
– declares war on Cleopatra
– battle of actium 31
– leads ground troops
– Antony runs to Alexandria and Octavian follows
– Antony commits suicide in 30 and Octavian left sole ruler of Rome
– Actium ends one centruy of civil war
– all Italian allies have become citizens
– rebuilds temples – evidence of divine power
– starts to receive relgious and political honors for his role as a peace maker
– begins to establish thought that only he can keep peace and make Rome prosper
– 17 Lepidus dies and Augustus become pontifex maximus
– expands temple of vestal virgins
– livia is put in charge of sacred flame
– pater patriae
– ceremoniously relinquishes material control
– co-consul with Agrippa
– augustus’ power legally granted by the senate
– imperator means leader not emperor
– princeps means #1
– dictator after grain shortage
– holds Ludi Saeculares games in 17 BC
– drastically reduces size oft he army
– voluntary enrollment for the army with a substantial payment at the end
– adds Galatia and Judea to empire
– reclaims the standards that Crassus had lost to Parthia
– dealt with uprisings in Germany, Dalmatia, and Panonia
– told Tiberius not to expand the empire any further
– controlled all politics
– commissioned major building projects civil and religious
– Curia Julia, Temple of Mars Ultor in Forum of Augustus and Ara Pacis
– house large but partly public – Romans liked public not private wealth
– 23 become seriously ill
– adopts Agrippa and Julia’s sons Gaius and Lucius
– Gaius and Lucius die early
– starts plans for mausoleum as early as 32 bc
-Maecenas, Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, buried there
– res gestae placed there
– dies in 14 AD
– immediately deified
– created empire that saw no major changes for 3 centuries
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa 63-12 BC/AD
– born around same time as Octavian
– was a close friend of Octavian
– managed campaigns for Octavian
– later Tribune of the Plebs, Aedile and Consul
– responsible for many public building projects
– built the Pantheon (rebuilt 100 years later)
– defeats Pompey Magnus with Octavians and Antonys troops 36
– battle of actium 31
– leads navy
– co-consul with Augustus during Augustus’ reign
– 21 forced to marry Augustus’ daughter Julia – they have gaius and lucius
– dies in 12
Quintus Pedius
– fought for Caesar
– another heir of Caesar, but gave share to Augustus
– the two marched on Rome together to gain co-consulship
– wrote the Lex Pedius which condemned Caesars killers
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 89-17 BC
– part of second triumvirate (financial support)(formal legal pact)
– controlled Africa
– tries to take over Sicily 36 but Octavian drives him out and takes his troops
– 17 Lepidus dies
Gaius Valerius Catullus 84-54 BC
– Neoteric Poet
– enemy then friend of Caesar
– much of his poetry considered lewd
– becomes a model for augustan poets
Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) 86-35 BC
– wrote on corruption of Roman leaders and appealing to the crowd
– wrote on: the Catilinarian Conspiracy and the Jugurthine War
– Caesar appointed him governor of Africa but removed because of corruption
Publius Vergilius Maro (Vergil) 70-19 BC
– circle of Maecenas
– 3 major works: Eclogues, Georgias and the Aeneid
– difficult to interpret writings because Vergil stayed in politics
– “dark reading” of the Aenied
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) 65-8 BC
– circle of Maecenas
– composes Carmen Saeculare for the Ludi Saeculare
– latin lyric, lambic, other poetic letters, celebrations
– joins Maecenas while he is governing Rome
– themes: retreat from the masses, carpe diem, wine, “poetic immortality”
– may have been subversive in writings
Sextus Aurelius Propertius 50-15 BC
– circle of Maecenas
– wrote love elegies
– writings centered around fictional lover cynthia
– also composed dedications for temples
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas 70-8 BC
– well educated but not senatorial
– in charge of Rome after Philippi
– good friend and advisor of Augustus
giant villa in Tibur
– great patron of the arts
Tiberius Julius Caesar 42-37 BC/AD reign 14-37 AD
– son of Augustus wife Livia
– from the claudian family
– raised in the public eye
– forced to marry Julia after Agrippa dies
– disliked Julia and regretted having to divorce Agrippina
– gets tribunicia potestas in 6 BC
– forced to adopt Germanicus
– left Rome and lived in Rhodes because politics were too stressful
– goes back to Rome for he fears of people starting to turn against him
– adopted son on Augustus
– wins military victories in Illyrium and Germany
– considered slow and methodical
– very cautious about receiving public honors
– second emperor
– over time becomes more and more reserved
– when Livia starts to demand to be co-ruler, begins spending time in Sperlonga
– leaves Rome to live in Capri
– estranged from family
– abuses Germanicus
– goes crazy at villa
– publicly punishes anyone associated with Sejanus from Capri
– Rome continues with little guidance
– dies in 37, ashes put into mausoleum of Augustus
– people happy to see him go
– Caligula appointed heir
– lost much of the territory he had conquered by bad diplomacy
– consolidated older parts of the empire
– emperor during Christ
– praetorian guard becomes more powerful
– fiscally conservative
– refused to be named pater patriae
Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) 43-17
– writer
– aquired patronage of aristocrat
– composed highly stylized love, exile poetry, and others
– exiled to the black sea in 8 AD
– a poem and a mistake
– died in exile in 17 AD
Germanicus Julius Caesar 15-19 BC/AD
– son of Drusus (grandson of Livia) and Antonia the younger (daughter of Agrippa and Octavia)
– brilliant military commander
– campaigns in Dalmatia and Teutoburg forest
– Tiberius’ adopted son
– crushed a rebellion in Germany by soldiers who tried to make him emperor
– 3 sons, Nero (dies), Drusus (dies) and Gaius (Caligula)
– leaves Rome to live in Capri
Lucius Aelius Seianus (Sejanus) 20-31 BC/AD
– claims power and becomes consul when Germanicus and Tiberius leave Rome
– prefect of the praetorian guard (guard formally created by Augustus)
– rose to power during reign of Augustus
– seduced wife of Tiberius’ son Drusus and they poison him
– Tiberius arranges for his arrest and execution when he claims Rome for himself
– body thrown into the Tiber
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) 12-41 AD reign 37-41
– son of Germanicus
– little military boot
– summoned to Capri by Tiberius
– elected emperor by general consensus
– autumn 37 falls ill – makes him crazy- reversal of Tiberius’ government
– 4 wives, no legitimate children
– assassinated in 41 by Praetorian guard
– showed early promise
– restored elections of magistrates to the people
– moved mint to Rome
– restored senatorial prestige
– published imperial budget
– deposed and executed Ptolemy of Mauretania
– dethroned king of Armenia
– granted public recognition of cults of Isis and Serapis
– paid out all bequests made by Tiberius and gained popularity
– dedicated the temple of augustus
– built a lighthouse and canal to ease communication between provinces
– built aqueducts
– completed repairs on the Theatre of Pompey
– constructed his Circus
– also built a bridge of boats across the bay of naples
– insisted his statue be put into the temple in Jerusalem
– erratic behavior estranged him from the public
– deification during lifetime: statues, sacrifices, demanded public worship
– emptied coffers in 9 months
– private wealth = bad
– incest with his sisters- deified sister Drusilla
– conspiracy against him 39 fails
– Agrippina Minor (mother of Nero) banished
– wife and daughter executed
– when he died, people thought it was a ploy to see how people would react
– when they found out he really was dead, they killed his wife and daughter, destroyed all statues
– assassinated on the last day of the games
– life more sensational than important
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 10-54 BC/AD reign 41-54
– physically disabled
– tutored by Livy, very well educated
– survived Caligula’s rule by acting like a fool
– wrote a history of Rome to 44 and a linguistic history of the Etruscans
– found behind a curtain after Caligula’s assassination and (jokingly?) declared emperor
– appearance is everything in Rome
– Praetorians well paid for their loyalty, 100 sesterces on the anniversary of his rise to power
– elected princeps after a lengthy debate as Caligula had named no heir
– much more hands on but considered to micro-manage
– elected senators from western provinces
– consults with freedmen rather than senators
– fixes a number of problems caused by Caligula by appointing new military leaders
– 43 invades Britain
– temporarily fixes problems in Jerusalem by appointing Agrippa I as leader
– named imperator 27 times
– history unkind to him because he was too progressive
– senate hated him
– creates a number of successful programs, like a finance ministry, correspondence ministry and a petitions ministry
– grain distribution carefully run
– building renovations
– very unsuccessful with women
– Brittanicus with third wife
– 4th wife was niece Agrippina Minor who convinced him to adopt her son Nero
– Agrippina secures Nero’s position over Brittanicus’
– Agrippina poisons him when he starts to reconsider
– Seneca’s Apocolocyntis (pumpkinification)
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 37-68 AD reign 54-68 AD
– still very young when Claudius dies
– first speech to senate written by Seneca
– Agrippina arranged for him to be tutored by Seneca and Sextus Afranius Burrus
– Agrippina holds tight control over his life
– 55 poisons Brittanicus after Agrippina starts to show him favor
– begins affair with Poppea, wife of Otho and Agrippina disapproves
– 59 kills Agrippina in a staged shipwreck
– beings to go crazy
– begins to withdraw from public duties
– 60 Boudicca and the Druids revolt
– 62 inflation and financial crisis, Seneca exiled, Nero divorces Octavia and marries Poppea
– 63 poisons Burrus and appoints Ofonius Tigellinus as Prefect
– 64 great fire of Rome and Domus Aurea
– great fire 6 days 7 nights
– looters added to confusion
– claimed the christians set it
– took charge of cleanup but demanded heavy compensation
– built house on confiscated lands after fire (was public land turned private)
– close to the forum
– included colossal statue of self
– persecution of the christains included killing apostles peter and paul
– christians crucified, eaten, burned etc
– christians gained sympathy from the populace
– 65 Pisonian conspiracy
– plan to overthrow Tigellinus and kill Nero by many senators
– Seneca, Lucan and around 40 senators are executed or forced to commit suicide
– 66 Tiridates crowned in Rome as king of Armenia – peace between Armenia and Parthians
– regains public favor
– 66 first Jewish revolt
– 68 sightseeing in Greece while Gaul revolts
– Vindex aided by Roman general Galba
– returns, but spends most of the time in the senate talking about a new instrument
– continues to disregard public affairs and denounced as a public enemy by the senate
– 68 commits suicide (what an artist dies with me)
– wanted to be loved by the people
– active in public life
– damnatio memoriae
– first emperor to need someone to write for him
– put rome into great debt
Lucius Annaeus Seneca 4-65 BC/AD
– moral philosopher, orator, writier
– stoic
– themes of stoicism, supreme, transcendent, divine good and lifes goal is to pursue this
– temporal desires are a distraction from this pursuit
– writes on neros interaction with artists and scholars
Herod Agrippa (Agrippa I) 10-44 BC/AD reign 41-44
– friend of Julio-Claudian emperors
– educated in Rome
– convinced caligula not to place his statue in the temple
– made king of Judea by Claudius
– favored by Jews but not by Christians
Agrippa II reign 48-100
– son of Agrippa I
– roman educated and tended to side with them
– gains several kingdoms in the area
– culturally Roman
– first Jewish revolt
– 66 he and Roman forces are overrun and flee to Rome
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus 9-79 AD reign 69-79
– general from Claudius’ campaigns, is one of the Roman leaders
– 67 appointed to handle the revolt
– 68 retaken most Jewish settlements
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
– 69 year of the 4 emperors
– holds the largest army and is very popular
– son Titus left to finish war
– 71-75 completes templum pacis
– built with spoils from the jewish war
– established the flavian dynasty
– stabilized the empire and restored the city
no military strong enough to threaten him
– defeated Vitellius at Cremonia
– my sons will follow or no one will
– 69 lex de imperio full legal power of an emperor granted by law upon his investment by the senate
– precedent for new dynasties
– rebuilt the senate with titus
– military reforms
– considered self a second augustus
– left paying for much of neros debt
– began construction on new massive amphitheater with spoils from jerusalem
Servius Sulpicius Galba Augustus 3-69 BC/AD reign 69
– 69 year of the 4 emperors
– no julio claudian connections
– old when took power
– proclaimed emperor by the senate after neros death
– didnt use same luxuries as nero
– slaughter of the mariners upon arrival to rome – death without trial
– discharged all germanic soldiers without compensation
– planned to revitalize treasury
– lost popularity because people were used to living rich
– allows self to be controlled by staff
– german legions refuse to swear loyalty
– decides to choose Lucinanus over Otho for heir
– challenges Otho
– he and all favorites killed
Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus 32-69 AD reign 69
– 69 year of the 4 emperors
– 36 at time of succession
– known for his extravagance and femininity
– friends with nero earlier in life
– sent to be governor of Luisitania
– restored statues of nero
– put 50 million sesterces into the domus aurea
– took cognomen nero
– coinage demonstrated kindness – grain supply
– situation in germania understood by him
– fought battles with those legions
– committed suicide 69
Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus 15-69 AD reign 69
– 69 year of the 4 emperors
– had experience in politics
– known for gluttony and cruelty
– troops declared him emperor in january – senate in april
– defeated at second battle of cremonia
– mid july forces declared vespasian as emperor
– attempted to hide when he gave up the throne
– tortured
– vespasian sympathizers also killed his brother and son
Titus 39-81 reign 79-81
– left to finish to in Judea
– 70 continues to lay siege to Jerusalem
– starts breaking down walls around the city and invades it
– massive fighting within city walls
– 1 million dead in the siege?
– the temple was destroyed
– returns to Rome and receives triumphal procession
– expansion of the forum romanum including triumphal arch depicting capture of jerusalem
– develops west into campus martius
– took throne without issue after his fathers death in 79
– short reign but eruption of vesuvius in 79 and opening of the flavian ampitheatre
– died suddenly in 81
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus 70-130
– writes on the 12 caesars
– the Christians under Claudius – expelled from Rome
– Christians under Nero
– the great fire – new and maleficent superstition
– no real difference between judaism and christianity at this time
– talks of nero playing the violin during the great fire
– claims nero set fire openly
– writings included the gossip and rumors of the julio claudians
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus 56-123 AD
– annals book 15 cp 44
– the great fire of rome
– torture of the christians
– “hated for their shameful acts”
– claims nero had no part in setting the fire
– criticized for misrepresenting the jews also of the emperors
Cassius Dio 150-235 AD
– historia romana
– persecution under domitian
– talks of nero playing the violin during the great fire
– claims nero set fire secretly
Pliny the Elder 23-79 AD
– died during eruption of vesuvius
– writer during time of nero
– scared to be persecuted by nero if he wrote about him
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus 39-65 AD
– friend of nero
– eventually became more popular than nero
– forced to commit suicide in 65
Domitian 51-96 AD reign 81-96
– became emperor without much experience
– went to war personally against chatti and campaigns in the north and east
– his general julius agricola had succesful campaigns in Britain
– improves defensive infrastructure to help fight against the parthians
– wanted to be referred to as dominus et deus
– no regard for senate or elite
– raised pay of the army
– hosted many games at the flavian ampitheatre
– not necessarily a bad emperor in terms of getting things done
– after a small rebellion (defeated by Trajan) becomes paranoid of all conspiracies
– tries and executes a number of senators
– eventually assassinated by his wife, and the praetorian prefects
– had only 1 son who died in infancy
– mixed legacy – hated by senators and historians, but reviewed positively by some authors (Statius)
– promoted memorial architecture
– cancelleria relief
– improved circus maximus
– built stadium to self

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