Q1. Medical Terminology

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abdomin/o
lapar/o
abdomen
acr/o
extremity or topmost
aden/o
gland
aer/o
air or gas
angi/o
vas/o
vascul/o
vessel
carcin/o
cancer
cardi/o
heart
cephal/o
head
cyan/o
blue
cyt/o
cell
derm/o
dermat/o
cutane/o
skin
dextr/o
right or on the right side
erythr/o
red
fibr/o
fiber
gastr/o
stomach
gen/o
origin or production
gluc/o
glucos/o
glyc/o
sugar
hem/o
hemat/o
blood
hepat/o
liver
hydr/o
water
leuk/o
white
lip/o
fat
lith/o
stone
melan/o
black
morph/o
form
nas/o
rhin/o
nose
necr/o
death
or/o
mouth
orth/o
straight, normal, or correct
oste/o
bone
path/o
disease
ped/o
child or foot
phob/o
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phon/o
voice or sound
plas/o
formation
pod/o
foot
psych/o
mind
py/o
pus
ren/o
nephr/o
kidney
scler/o
hard
sinistr/o
left or on the left side
son/o
sound
sten/o
narrow
therm/o
heat
tox/o
toxic/o
poison
troph/o
nourishment or development
ur/o
urin/o
urine
-algia
-dynia
pain
-genesis
origin or production
-lysis
breaking down or dissolution
-megaly
enlargement
-oid
resembling
-penia
abnormal reduction
-rrhea
discharge
-spasm
involuntary contraction
-cele
pouching or hernia
-ectasis
expansion or dilation
-emia
blood condition
-iasis
formation or presence of
-itis
inflammation
-malacia
softening
-oma
tumor
-osis
condition or increase
-phil
-philia
attraction for
-ptosis
falling or downward displacement
-rrhage
-rrhagia
to burst forth (usually blood)
-rrhexis
rupture
-centesis
puncture for aspiration
-desis
binding
-ectomy
excision or removal
-pexy
suspension or fixation
-plasty
surgical repair or reconstruction
-rrphaphy
suture
-tomy
incision
-stomy
creation of an opening
-tripsy
crushing
-e
noun marker
-ia
-ism
condition of
-ium
structure or tissue
-ation
-y
condition or process of
-ac
-al
-ar
-ary
-eal
-ic
-ous
-tic
pertaining to
-icle
-ole
-ula
-ule
small
-gram
record
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-iatrics
-iatry
treatment
-logy
study of
-logist
one who specializes in the study or treatment of
-ist
one who specializes in
-meter
instrument for measuring
-metry
process of measuring
-poiesis
formation
-scope
instrument for examination
-scopy
examination
-stasis
stop or stand
a-, an-
without
anti-, contra-
against or opposed to
de-
from, down, or not
ab-
away from
ad-
to, toward, or near
circum-, peri-
around
dia-, trans-
across or through
e-, ec-, ex-
out or away
ecto-, exo-, extra-
outside
en-, endo-, intra-
within
epi-
upon
inter-
between
meso-
middle
meta-
beyond, after, or change
para-
alongside of or abnormal
retro-
backward or behind
sub-, infra-
below or under
bi-
two or both
hemi-, semi-
half
hyper-
above or excessive
hypo-
below or deficient
macro-
large or long
micro-
small
mono-, uni-
one
oligo-
few or deficient
pan-
all
poly-, multi-
many
quadr-
four
super-, supra-
above or excessive
tri-
three
ultra-
beyond or excessive
ante-, pre-, pro-
before
brady-
slow
tachy-
fast
post-
after or behind
re-
again or back
con-, syn-, sym-
together or with
dys-
painful, difficult, or faulty
eu-
good or normal
neo-
new
cardi/o
heart
chir/o
hand
crin/o
to secrete
dent/i
teeth
dermat/o
skin
enter/o
small intestine
esthesi/o
sensation
gastr/o
stomach
gen/o
origin or productoin
ger/o
old age
gynec/o
woman
hemat/o
blood
immun/o
safe
laryng/o
voicebox
nephr/o
kidney
neur/o
nerve
obstetr/o
midwife
onc/o
tumor
ophthalm/o
eye
opt/o
eye
orth/o
straight, normal, or correct
ot/o
ear
path/o
disease
ped/o
child or foot
physi/o
physical
plas/o
formation
pod/o
foot
psych/o
mind
radi/o
x-ray
vascul/o
vessel
ā
before (ante)
a.c.
before meals (ante cibum)
a.m.
before noon (ante meridiem)
b.i.d.
twice a day (bis in die)
d
day
h
hour (hora)
h.s.
at hour of sleep (hora somni)
noc.
night (noctis)

_

p

after (post)
p.c.
after meals (post cibum)
p.m.
after noon (post meridiem)
p.r.n.
as needed (pro re nata)
q
every (quaque)
q d
every day (quaque die)
q h
every hour (quaque hora)
q 2 h
every 2 hours
q.i.d.
four times a day (quater in die)
q.o.d.
every other day (quaque altera die)
STAT
immediately (statim)
t.i.d.
three times a day (ter in die)
wk
week
yr
year
AD
right ear (auris dextra)
AS
left ear (auris sinistra)
AU
both ears (aures unitas)
ad lib.
as desired (ad libitum)
amt
amount
aq
water (aqua)
(B)
bilateral
C
Celsius, centigrade

_

c

with (cum)
F
Fahrenheit
(M)
murmur
NPO
nothing by mouth (non per os)
OD
right eye (oculus dexter)
OS
left eye (oculus sinister)
OU
both eyes (oculi unitas)
per
by or through
p.o.
by mouth (per os)
PR
through rectum (per rectum)
PV
through vagina (per vagina)
q.n.s.
quantity not sufficient
q.s.
quantity sufficient
Rx
recipe; prescription
Sig:
label; instruction to the patient (signa)

_

s

without (sine)

__

ss

one-half (semis)
w.a.
while awake
?
times or for
>
greater than
<
less than
CCU
Coronary (Cardiac) Care Unit
ECU
Emergency Care Unit
ER
Emergency Room
ICU
Intensive Care Unit
IP
Inpatient (a registered bed patient)
OP
Outpatient
OR
Operating Room
PACU
Postanesthetic Care Unit
PAR
Postanesthetic Recovery
post-op/postop
postoperative (after surgery)
pre-op/preop
preoperative (before surgery)
RTC
Return To Clinic
RTO
Return To Office
BRP
Bathroom Privileges
CP
Chest Pain
DC, D/C
discharge, discontinue
ETOH
Ethyl Alcohol
(L)
Left
(R)
Right
pt
patient
RRR
Regular Rate and Rhythm
SOB
Shortness Of Breath
Tr
Treatment
Tx
Treatment or Traction
VS
Vital Signs
T
Temperature
P
Pulse
R
Respiration
BP
Blood Pressure
Ht
Height
Wt
Weight
WDWN
Well-Developed and Well-Nourished
y.o.
year old
#
number or pound
female
male
°
degree or hour
increased
decreased
Ө
none or negative

Ο

l

standing

Ο

 L

sitting
O—
lying
tab
tablet
oral [per os (p.o.)]
by mouth
cap
capsule
sublingual (SL)
under the tongue
buccal
in the cheek
suppos
suppository
vaginal [per vagina (PV)]
inserted in vagina
rectal [per rectum (PR)]
inserted in rectum
inhalation
inhaled through nose or mouth
intradermal (ID)
within the skin
intramuscular (IM)
within the muscle
intravenous (IV)
within the vein
subcutaneous (Sub-Q, SC, SQ)
under the skin
topical
applied to the surface of the skin
transdermal
absorption of a drug though unbroken skin
implant
a drug reservoir embedded in the body to provide continued infusion of a medication
H&P
History and Physical – documentation of patient history and physical examination findings
Hx
History – record of subjective information regarding the patient’s personal medical history, including past injuries, illnesses, operations, defects, and habits
subjective information
information obtained from the patient including his or her personal perceptions
CC
Chief Complaint
c/o
Complains Of – patient’s description of what brought him or her to the doctor or hospital; it is usually brief and is often documented in the patient’s own words indicated with quotes
HPI (PI)
History of Present Illness (Present Illness) – amplification of the chief complaint recording details of the duration and severity of the condition (how long the patient has had the complaint and how bad it is)
Sx
Symptom – subjective evidence (from the patient) that indicates an abnormality
PMH (PH)
Past Medical History (Past History) – a record of information about the patient’s past illnesses starting with childhood, including surgical operations, injuries, physical defects, medications, and allergies
UCHD
Usual Childhood Diseases – an abbreviation used to note that the patient had the “usual” or commonly contracted illnesses during childhood
NKA
No Known Allergies
NKDA
No Known Drug Allergies
FH
Family History -state of health of immediate family members
A&W
Alive and Well
L&W
Living and Well
SH
Social History – a record of the patient’s recreational interests, hobbies, and use of tobacco and drugs, including alcohol
OH
Occupational History – a record of work habits that may involve work-related risks
ROS (SR)
Review Of Systems (Systems Review) 0 a documentation of the patient’s response to questions organized by a head-to-toe review of the functions of all body systems
objective information
facts and observations noted
PE (Px)
Physical Examination – documentation of a physical examination of a patient, including notations of positive and negative objective findings
HEENT
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat
NAD
No Acute Distress, No Appreciable Disease
PERRLA
Pupils Equal, Round, and Reactive to Light and Accommodation
WNL
Within Normal Limits
Dx
Diagnosis
IMP
Impression
A
Assessment – identification of a disease or condition after evaluation of the patient’s history, symptoms, signs, and results of laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures
R/O
Rule Out – used to indicate a differential diagnosis when one or more diagnoses are suspect; each possible diagnosis is outlined and either verified or eliminated after further testing is performed
P
Plan (also referred to as recommendation or disposition) – outline of the treatment plan designed to remedy the patient’s condition, which includes instructions to the patient, orders for medications, diagnostic tests, or therapies
cc
cubic centimeter (1 cc = 1 mL)
cm
centimeter (2.5 cm = 1 inch)
g or gm
gram
kg
kilogram [1,000 grams (2.2 pounds)]
L
liter
mg
milligram [one-thousandth (0.001) of a gram]
ml, mL
milliliter [one-thousandth (0.001) of a liter]
mm
millimeter [one-thousandth (0.001) of a meter]
cu mm
cubic millimeter
fl oz
fluid ounce
gr
grain
gt
drop
gtt
drops
dr
dram (1/8 ounce)
oz
ounce
lb or #
pound (16 ounces)
qt
quart (32 ounces)
acute
sharp; having intense, often severe symptoms and a short course
chronic
a condition developing slowly and persisting over time
benign
mild or noncancerous
malignant
harmful or cancerous
degeneration
gradual deterioration of normal cells and body functions
degenerative disease
any disease in which there is deterioration of structure or function of tissue
diagnosis
determination of the presence of a disease based on an evaluation of symptoms, signs, and test findings
etiology
cause of a disease
exacerbation
increase in severity of a disease with aggravation of symptoms
remission
a period in which symptoms and signs stop or abate
febrile
relating to a fever (elevated temperature)
gross
large; visible to the naked eye
idiopathic
a condition occurring without a clearly identified cause
localized
limited to a definite area or part
systemic
relating to the whole body rather than only a part
malaise
a feeling of unwellness, often the first indication or illness
marked
significant
equivocal
vague, questionable
morbidity
sick; state of disease
morbidity rate
the number of cases of a disease in a given year; the ratio of sick to well individuals in a given population
mortality
the state of being subject to death
mortality rate
death rate; ratio of total number of deaths to total number in a given population
prognosis
foreknowledge; prediction of the likely outcome of a disease based on the general health status of the patient along with knowledge of the usual course of the disease
progressive
the advance of a condition as signs and symptoms increase in severity
prophylaxis
a process or measure that prevents disease
recurrent
to occur again; describes a return of symptoms and signs after a period of quiescence (rest or inactivity)
sequela
a disorder or condition after, and usually resulting from. a previous disease or injury
sign
a mark; objective evidence of a disease that can be seen or verified by an examiner
symptom
occurrence; subjective evidence of disease that is perceived by the patient and often noted in his or her own words
syndrome
a running together; combination of symptoms and signs that give a distinct clinical picture indicating a particular condition or disease
noncontributory
not involved in bringing on the condition or result
unremarkable
not significant or worthy of noting

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