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Define mythos
authoritative speech
What is a myth?
traditional story with collective importance
Define etiological
story of why things are
Define Legend
what happened in the human past (heroes)
Define classical
Greek and Roman
What are the 6 time periods?
Early/ Middle Bronze Age; Late Bronze Age (Myocenean); Dark Age; Archaic Period; Classical Period; Hellenistic period
In what period was the Trojan war?
Late Bronze Age
What are the characteristics of the Early/Middle Bronze Age?
Minoan civilization (knossos); Bull art
What are the characteristics of the Late Bronze Age?
Trojan war; Agamemnon; Linear B writing
What was the only city NOT invaded during the Dark Ages?
What are the highlights of the Archaic Period?
Rise of the Polis; Aristocrats; writing; Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey; Hesiod (theogany); Achilles and Pentheileia; Theseus and the Minotaur
What are the characteristics of the Classical Period?
Persian war; Drama (Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides); Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle); Peloponesian War
When did Apollonius write?
Hellenistic period
When did Pinder write?
Classical period
What is the title for “initiation rites”?
Define Kouros
the body beautiful (male)
define symposium
all male drinking party
Define parthenos
What is the meaning of Eros?
sexual love
What is the term for mother?
What is a votive?
What is a libation?
offering of liquid
What is the name of the Roman epic poem and its author?
Who wrote the story of Daphne being turned into a tree?
What does Aether mean?
What does Hemera mean?
What is the name for “Sea”?
Who are the children of Gaea and Uranus(3)?
Titans; Cyclopes; Hecatonchires
Who was the youngest Titan?
Cronus; father of Zeus
Who’s version of cosmology makes the Titans the “parents” of all the gods?
Who was the moon?
Who was the dawn?
Who was the father of the sun, moon, and dawn?
Who was Phaethon?
the mortal son of Helius who nearly destroyed the world by driving the sun chariot; killed by Zeus
Who did the moon fall in love with?
Endymion; eternal sleep to stay young
Who did the dawn fall in love with?
Tithonus; lives forever but doesn’t stay young
Who were the children of Gaea and Pontus?
monsters and sea deities (Gorgons,chimera,cerebus)
What is the Greek sphinx?
woman and lion combo
What did the blood from castrated bring forth?
furies and giants; with sea foam= Aphrodite
Who are the parents of the olympians?
Cronus and rhea
What is the ompholos?
Navel; Zeus stone
Who does Gaea mate with to have typhoeus?
Who was the mother of Zeus’ last child?
Metis; she bore Athena via Zeus’ forehead
What structure was named after Athena?
the Parthenon
What are the four possible identities for the person who created humans?
Zeus; Zeus and the other gods; the chasm; Prometheus (2nd generation titan)
What does prometheus mean?
What does epimetheus mean?
after learner
Who tells the story of Prometheus’ creations?
According to Ovid, what were humans made of?
Earth and water
What gifts does Prometheus give to humans?
math, astronomy, seafaring, writing, calendar, etc
Where did Prometheus offer his sacrifice to Zeus?
How did Zeus punish Prometheus for stealing fire?
Tied him to a pillar near the Black sea where eagles would eat out his liver by day and it would grow back at night
How did Zeus punish Prometheus for tricking him into receiving a poor sacrifice?
he took fire away from the trees
How were the humans punished for taking the fire Prometheus had stolen?
Woman; Pandora
How did Prometheus transport the fire he had stolen for the humans?
in fennel
Why is Prometheus released from his place of punishment?
Because he knew the identity of the woman who would bear a child greater than Zeus; freed by Heracles
Who wrote the story about Prometheus’ freedom?
Who is the woman expected to bear the child greater than Zeus and how is that problem solved?
Thetis; Zeus marries her off to a mortal named Peleus and she bears Achilles by him
Who accepts Pandora as a gift?
Why do humans suffer?
Because Pandora opened her jar and released all evil into the world
What was the only thing left in Pandora’s jar?
What are the Five Races of Man?
Golden; Silver; Bronze; Heroic; Iron
Who wrote the story of Pandora and the Five Races of Man?
Hesiod in Works and Days
Who was the person that caused the Greek flood to happen and why?
Lycaon; because he fed human stew to a disguised Zeus to determine whether or not he was really a divine being in human form
What was Lycaon’s punishment for his treachery?
Zeus turned him into a wolf
Who are the only 2 people to survive the flood and who advises them on how to reproduce?
Deucalion (Prometheus’ son) and Pyrrha (Epimetheus’ daughter); Themis–throwing rocks over their shoulders
Who were the most important children Deucalion and Pyrrha produced the “normal” way?
Eponymous (heroes of Greeks) and Hellen[male] (creator of “Greeks”)
What are the other four floods that were written about?
Summerians; Akkadians; Babylonians; the one in Genesis
Prometheus was the ___ of humans
What philosopher came up with the story of the creation of love?
Plato (Classical Pd)
Define Anthropomorphism
What is Ichor?
divine fluid (the blood of the gods)
Define Ambrasia
the food of the gods
What does Nymph mean?
young woman
Gods cannot be wounded or feel pain
False; they can but they can’t be killed
Define eponymous
giving one’s name to something; eponym is the person whose name is used
What is the Roman name for Zeus?
What is another nickname for Zues (not roman)?
What is Zeus’ symbol of power?
aegis (goat skin); lightning bolts
What are Zeus’ animal representations?
Bull and eagle
Zeus is guardian of _____
justice (dike)
Zeus is the PROTECTOR of _____
Xenia: the institution of friendship/recipricol hospitality
Who are the only people more powerful than Zeus?
the Fates
What are Zeus’ sacred places?
Olympia and Dodona
Who is Hera?
the sister/wife of Zeus
What is Hera’s Roman name?
What is Hera in charge of?
Marriage and women’s fertility
What is Hera’s animal and why?
cow; called “cow-eyed” which is a high compliment
What are Hera’s sacred places?
Argos and Olympia
How do you recognize Hera in art?
Woman pulling back a veil
What does Heracles mean?
glory of Hera
Who made Heracles famous?
Who does Hera join in rebellion?
Athena and Poseidon
Define Heraeum
temple of Hera
Who are Zeus and Hera’s children (4)?
Eileithya, Hebe, Ares, and Hephaestus (Hera had him alone; her and Zeus together?)
Rain is symbolic for what?
What happens to Zeus during the Trojan war?
He is seduced by Hera
Who are the “children of the night”?
Horae and Morae; mother is Themis
Who are the parents of the Graces?
Euronyme (Oceanid) and Zeus
Who are the other parents of Aphrodite?
Zeus and Dione
With whom does Zeus mate to create the 9 muses?
Who was the boy Zeus was in love with?
Who is neptune?
What is Poseidon’s nickname?
The Trident is who’s weapon?
Poseidon is the husband of _____ and the father of ____
Amphitrite; Triton
What is Poseidon’s animal?
Who did Poseidon battle with to become the god of Athens?
What are the three products of Poseidon’s affairs
the 1st horse (Demeter); Pegasus (Medusa); and cyclops
What is another name for Hades?
What are the two Roman names for Hades?
Pluto and Dis
Who does Hades abduct?
What is Hades special “power”
invisibility from a cyclopes’ helmet
Apollo is the god of ____
What is Apollo’s nickname?
“Far Darter” because he is an archer
Who are Apollo’s parents?
Zeus and Leta (Titan)
Where is Apollo’s sacred place?
What “categories” is Apollo over?
Artistry pertaining to music; healing; prophecy;
How do you recognize Apollo in art?
Lyre, raven, laurel, archer
What are 2 other names for Apollo?
Delian and Delphina Apollo
Where was Apollo born?
Define phoebus and who its associated with
light of knowledge; Apollo
What curse did Hera place upon Leto?
She couldn’t give birth to Apollo anywhere that saw the light of day
Once Apollo is born what does Hera do?
Sends Tityus (a giant) to rape Leto but it doesn’t work out
Who is the person that misleads Apollo?
The nymph Telphusa
Where does the nymph send Apollo?
from Boeotia to Mt Parnassus; where a dragon lives
What does Pytho mean?
I rot
Who was originally the god of Delphi?
How does Apollo get his Oracular built?
He hops on a Cretan ship in the form of a dolphin and persuades them to come to Delphi promising riches
What is special about Apollo’s shrine at Delphi?
it was a place where people could go to be cleansed of blood guilt
what animal was used in the cleansing of blood guilt?
the pig
What is the name of Apollo’s prophetess?
What did Apollo’s prophetess sit on?
What is the story of King Croesus?
King who gave a silver bull to the Pythia who told him that if his army crossed the river a great kingdom would fall; he lost the battle
Who did the Oracle call the wisest of men?
Who is the mortal Apollo fell in love with?
Why did Apollo make Cassandra a prophet no one would believe?
because she said she would sleep with him but she didn’t
Who wanted to live as long as the number of grains of sand she had in her hand?
Sibyl of Cumae
What lover of Apollo did the wind kill with a discus?
Which lover of Apollo cheated on him and who was their child?
Coronis; Asclepius (rep.:staff with snakes)
Who is the god of health?
Who is Chiron?
The wise centaur that raised Asclepius
How was the raven made?
Apollo shot the white bird that told him Coronis was a cheater and it turned black
Where did the Pythia recite her prophecy?
in the adytum; the section of the temple “not to be entered”
Who is the god of medicine?
Who did Cupid shoot with an arrow so that she would be repulsed by Apollo?
What is Apollo’s tree and why?
the Laurel; this is the tree Apollo’s lover Daphne was turned into
Define Hellenistic spirit
order against barbarism; reason against unreason
Who is Vulcan?
Which of the gods is lame?
ID the god:
Blacksmith, creative fire and volcanoes, civilization and city life
Who is Hephaestus often linked with?
Where did Hephaestus land when he was thrown off of Olympus?
Who was the wife of Hephaestus?
Who were the assistants of Hephaestus?
cyclopes and mechanical women
Who cut open the head of Zeus?
What was the reasoning behind Hephaestus being a worker?
He was a worker because he was lame
How do you recognize Hephaestus in art?
carrying tools
Who saved Hephaestus and taught him metal work?
Thetis and the Nereids
Who got Hephaestus to release Hera from her chair?
What is the roman name for Ares?
Who is god of the negative parts of war (blood lust)?
Who is associated with Thorace?
Who are the children of Ares (4)?
Phobos (fear), Deimos (panic), Harmonia, Eros (cupid)
Who is best known for their adultery with Aphrodite and who catches them in the act?
Ares; Helius and Hephaestus
Who offered to pay for Ares’ treachery?
Who is one of the main gods in ROMAN society?
What are the animals of Ares?
vulture and wolf
Who is the Roman Mercury?
Whose animal is the ram?
Who is the other most complex god?
Who are the parents of Hermes?
Zeus and Maia (nymph)
What is another name for Hermes(2)?
Argephontes (slayer of Argus) and Psychopompos (leader of souls to the underworld)
Whose symbol is the Caduceus and why?
Hermes; to protect him from those who would prevent him from delivering a message
How do you recognize Hermes in art?
Caduceus, winged shoes, traveler’s hat
What is the actual medical sign in greek; not the caduceus but the ______
Rod of Asclepius
What were the name of the stones that marked boundaries and the safeness of a path?
What is the story of Hermes called?
the Homeric Hymn to Hermes
What are the inventions of Hermes and when did he make them?
lyre, sausage, special sandals, kindling fire using a bow drill; the day after he was born
how did Hermes make the lyre?
by killing a turtle
What is the conflict between aristocrats and men of industry called?
aristoi vs kakoi
Who are the children of Hermes?
Autolycus (greatest liar and thief); grandson: clever Odysseus, Pan: horny and goat-like
What is Pan associated with?
Arcadia; panic
Who are the two loves of Pan?
Syrinx and Echo
Who was the one that distracted Hera from watching Zeus and was punished by being unable to initiate conversation?
Who was transformed into reeds (at request)to get away from Pan?
Syrinx; was used to make Pan pipe
Who is Ceres?
Which of the female deities are the children of Cronus and Rhea?
Demeter and Hestia
Who are the two people (women) connected with the Eleusinian Mysteries?
Demeter and Persephone
how do you recognize Demeter in art?
carries Cornucopia
Demeter is the goddess of what?
agricultural bounty
Hestia is the goddess of what?
hearth, house, and central sacred fire of a city
What is the Roman name for Hestia?
Hestia is a ___ goddess
who is the eldest child of Cronus and Rhea?
Who were the servants of Hestia?
Vestal Virgins
Which goddess stayed home and whose servants were buried alive if they broke their vow?
What is the Roman name for Aphrodite?
Aphrodite is the goddess of what?
sexual love
Who are the children of Aprodite?
with Ares= Eros (cupid)
with Hermes= Hermaphroditus
with Hermes/Dionyces= Priapus
with Anchises (mortal)= Aeneas
In Greek myth, cupid is a cute child
False; teenager
What is the story of Hermaphroditus?
a nymph named Salmacis fell in love with him, wanted to be one, and they were joined together. Hence the term hermaphrodite
Who is the god that weighs his penis in art?
Who are the three people immune to the powers of Aphrodite?
Hestia, Athena, and Artemis
What was Zeus’ punishment for Aphrodite’s transgressions?
He made her fall in love with a human (Anchises) and have his child (Aeneas)
What happens to the mortal Aphrodite had a child with?
He was struck by lightening and made lame because he told someone he slept with Aphrodite
Who is the legendary founder of the Roman ppl?
Who was the stone woman Aphrodite brought to life and who was her mate?
Galatea; Pygmalion King of Cyprus
Who was the child of Galatea and Pygmalion?
Aphrodite was shown fully (or mostly) clothed until what time period?
descendant of Paphos who said her daughter Myrrha was more beautiful than Aphrodite
What was the consequence of Myrrha’s mother’s mistake?
Aphrodite made Myrrha fall in love with her dad; he tried to kill her once he realized it was his daughter he’d been sleeping with; She was turned into a Myr tree
Who was born from the Myrr tree?
What is the purpose of Myrr resin?
burned on Aphrodite’s altar to clean it
What is the Roman name for Artemis?
What is the name for Artemis that means Mistress of Beasts?
Potnia Theron
What is Artemis the goddess of?
Women in the wild time of life; hunting and wild things; small (baby) animals; virgin goddess of childbirth; death in childbirth
The deer is whose animal?
ID: person with wings, holding animals, has a bow and arrow
Ephesus is the sacred place of who?
Which goddess kills in vengeance?
Artemis; Artemis the Killer
Whose children did Artemis and Apollo murder and why?
Niobe of Thebes because she said she was a better mother than Leto
Which goddess is associated with constellations?
What was the fate of Niobe?
She wept and turned to stone
What is the story of Orion?
hunter son of Poseidon who could walk and water and was blinded by someone for raping their daughter
How does Artemis kill Orion and why?
she puts a scorpion on his head for either trying to rape her or having an affair with Eos
Who is the Theban prince who sees Artemis bathing in the woods; gets turned into a deer; and is killed by his own dogs?
Actaeon; Artemis throws water on him
Whose Roman name is Minerva?
What are Athena’s nicknames?
Pallas and Glaukopis (owl-eyed)
What is Athena the goddess of?
crafts and civilization, weaving, carpentry, war strategy, protecress of heroes
How do you recognize Athena in art?
muscular virgin, helmet, owl, shield with a gorgon on it, snake, aegis, and a breastplate
Who challenged Athena in weaving and what happened to her?
Arachne; she was doing very well, Athena knocker her in the face with a shovel; she tried to hand herself; Athena turns her into a spider
What is Ovid’s relation to Athena?
He’s a Roman writer who tells the story of how Athena wove stories about mortals who challenged the gods

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