Myths 2

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Who is the father of Persephone?
Who is Kore?
What piece of writing tells the story of Eleusian Cult?
Homeric hym to Demeter
Who approves Persephone’s marriage to Hades?
What flower led to the abduction of Persephone by Hades?
Who is the non-Olympian who heard the cry of Persephone?
What does Demeter do as a result of Persephone’s capture?
Leaves Olympus and lives among mortals in Eleusis
Who tells Demeter and Hecate the story of Persephone’s abduction?
Who found Demeter at the well of the Maiden?
the daughters of the King of Eleusis
What does Demeter call herself while disguised as a mortal in Eleusis and what is her excuse for being there?
Doso; she escaped from pirates and is looking for work
Who is the Prince Doso takes care of and attempts to make immortal?
Why does Demeter reveal herself to the mortals and cause a famine?
Because the Queen caught her rolling her sun in fire and takes him away
Demeter ceases the famine once the gods beg her to
Who is sent to Hades to retrieve Persephone?
What does Hades have Persephone eat before she leaves the Underworl and what happens as a result?
Pomegranate; she must return there for 2/3 of the year
Who are the children of Hades and Persephone?
No one; it was a sterile marriage
What is the fruit of death?
What happens as a result of Demeter bringing grain back to the Earth?
She establishes her cult which lasts until the 4 CE
What is the reward for the members of the Eleusian cult?
A happy afterlife
What time of year is it when Persephone is with her mother?
What were the four possible meanings of the story of Persephone and Demeter?
metaphor for the four seasons; coming of age for women; sadness of marriage for the mother; explanation for death on Earth
Define Hierophant
high priest
Define Herald
Define Hiera
sacred things
Define Mystia
member of the Eleusian cult; could be anyone who spoke Greek except murderers
What is the name for the 2-day Eleusian initiation?
What happened during Telesterion?
nobody knows
Where did Telesterion take place?
Who was the “spreader of grain”?
What is the Roman name for Cybele?
Magna Mater
How was Cybele born?
From one of the rocks pyrrha and Decalion used to repopulate the Earth
What was Cybele in charge of and how do you recognize her in art?
fertility, hearing, protection in war, oracles; wears a crown of towers
How is Agdestis born
Zeus ejaculates because of his interest in Cybele and it lands on a rock; Agdestis comes from the rock
How is Agdestis punished for his behavior and who executes his punishment?
Dionyses castrates him by tricking him into drinking from a lake of wine and tying his groin with vines in his sleep
What is created as a result of Agdestis’ castration blood?
the pomegranate tree
Who does the pomegranate fruit impregnate?
What is Nana’s punishment for becoming pregnant and who is her child?
She is imprisoned by her father; Attis
Who helps raise Attis and who is his unlikely friend?
Cybele; Agdestis
Who does Attis marry and what happens at their wedding?
the daughter of Midas; Agdestis casts a spell to make everyone worship Attis; Attis and Gallus castrate themselves; Attis’ wife kills herself. The pine tree comes from the blood of Attis; Violets come from the blood of Attis and his bride
Where are Attis and his wife buried and what grows from their grave?
Together in a grave; an Almond tree
Who do Cybele and Agdestis beg to give life back to Attis and what happens as a result?
Zeus; he does not bring him back to life but the body doesn’t decay, his hair grows, and his pinky finger is always animated
What was the name for the followers of Cybele and what did they do?
Galli; castrated themselves
Who is the lover of Adonis, how does he die, and what happens as a result of his death?
Aphrodite; he is gored by a wild boar that Aphrodite warned him not to hunt; He is turned into an Anemone (flower)
What rites were performed by members of the cult of Adonis?
Women buried seeds in shallow earth and ripped out their hair when the plants died as a symbolic mourning for the death of Adonis
What is the pattern found in the stories of goddesses and their dying consorts?
Blood sacrifice; Earth goddes = permanent fertility of the Earth; the male =renewable through the powers of the Earth mother
What is the roman name for Dionysus?
Bacchus is the god of what?
wine (life force is the sap, instinctive side of personality)and male fertility (phallus and semen)
What animals are associated with dionysus?
Panthers and leopards
Who can be found with grape leaves in their hair or in a grape suit?
What god was late coming to Olympus and sometimes dresses like the opposite sex?
Who is the male complement to Demeter and why?
Dionysus; encourages growth of everything living
What are the basics of the birth of Dionysus?
Parents: Zeus and Semele
AKA “Twice Born” because he is ripped from his mother’s womb and reborn from the thigh of Zeus
Raised by Ino and them the nymphs
What is the story of Semele?
Princess of Thebes who falls in love with Zeus; tricked by Hera into asking Zeus to prove that he is a god; She asks him to come to her the way he does Hera and she is incinerated
what does Ino do to Dionysus and why? What are the consequences of doing so?
Disguises him as a girl to keep him from Hera; Hera drives Ino and her husband mad. She cuts up her children, puts them in a pot, and runs off a cliff; Transformed into sea deity Leucothea
Who taught Dionysus the art of wine-making
the nymphs
Who is responsible for curing Dionysus of his madness and who cursed him with it?
Cybele, also gives him feminine robes; Hera
Define Thyrsus
a staff wound with ivy leaves and crowned with a pine cone
Who did Dionysus give the golden touch to and why?
Midas, the king of Lydia; He was hospital and helped Dionysus find his lost, drunken satyr
Where does Midas go to get rid of the golden touch?
the Pactolus River
Who is the wife of Dionysus and where does he find her?
Ariadne; the island of Naxos where she was abandoned by Theseus
What is the name of Dionysus’ group of followers and what do they consist of?
Thyiades; Satyrs, Sileni (old satrys), and Bacchae (Maenads are female followers)
I pruned my own limbs thinking they were vines and was eaten alive by wild horses because I opposed Dionysus
What is the story of the Daughters of Minyas
AKA minyads; Good Greek women who refused to join Dionysus after he tries to coerce them in the form of a girl, bull, and a panther; Dionysus turns their looms into grapevines, nectar, milk, created darkness and changed them into bats
What is the story of the daughters of King Proteus?
AKA Proteids; cursed with itching (leprosy); went mad and thought they were cows; Seer tells king he’ll cure them for 1/3 of kingdom as payment, gets denied, then cures them in return for 2/3 of the kingdom
What is the story of Dionysus and the Pirates?
Etruscan pirates abduct him thinking he is an easy target; the Helmsman figures out he is a god and warns the crew but they do not listen; the ship fills with wine and vines start to grow on it; Dionysus becomes a lion; the entire crew jump into the water and become dolphins but the Helmsman is safe
What is the play and its author that tells the story of dionysus in Thebes?
The Bacchae by Euripides
What is the story of Dionysus in Thebes?
Dionysus goes to Thebes to spread his cult and punish his aunts for spreading lies about his mother; He turns the women of Thebes into mad Bacchae who have orgies in the mountaints
In the land of Thebes, who are the opposed to Dionysus’ cult and who accepts it?
Accept: Tiresias (seer) and the Old King of Thebes (Semele’s father)
Opposed: King Pentheus
What happens between Dionysus and Pentheus?
Pentheus captures and interrogates Dionysus but he escapes; a messenger comes to tell Pentheus what the crazed women are doing and urges him to accept the cult; Pentheus plans to stop the women
What happens as a result of Pentheus trying to stop the female followers of Dionysus?
Dionysus influences him to spy on them in women’s clothing, he likes it, Dionysus places him in a pine tree; the women find him there and rip him to shreds
Why does Dionysus go to the Underworld?
To retrieve the soul of his mother
How does Dionysus get to the Underworld and what is the result?
A shepherd helps him find the entrance at the Alcyonean Lake; Semele becomes Thyone (she who receives sacrifice); He searches for the now dead shepherd to reward him but settles for carving a phallus from a fig tree onto his grave
What is the meaning of Thyrsus?
What is the Lydian meaning of Dionysus?
What other things is Dionysus associated with?
“He of the Trees”; Blossoms, Ivy, Black goatskin; “Boukoloi” (bull-herders); Wet vegetation; life force and death; dying fertility god; possible original consort of Semele
Who represents Greek aversion to violence and irrationality and takes over Delphi when Apollo goes on vacation?
How was the cult of Dionysus different from others?
Direct and personal and gives freedom from everyday reality
What are the 5 terms associated with the cult of Dionysus and their meaning?
Euthousiasmos (being filled with the god); Ekstasis (standing outside oneself); Lysios (deliverer); Sparagmos (tearing apart); Omophagia (eat raw human flesh)
Females favored the cult of which god?
Where and during what event were tragedies performed in honor of Dionysus?
Lenaea and Dionysa; Festival of the Maenads
What were the logistics of the Festival of Maenads?
3 days of tragedy; 3 plays/ day; each day ends with a satyr play
What does tragedy mean?
goat song
What are the three main theories of Dionysus’ relation to theater?
Emerged from choral dance in honor of him; religious mystery of performances; ritual for mourning a dead hero
Who was Thespis, when did he live, and what did he do?
Creator of theater as we know it; During the time of Pisistratus the tyrant of Athens; made festivals of Dionysus available to Athenians and had citywide drinking parties to celebrate the new change to theater
What did most people consider to be the causes of death?
hostile forces from natural/human world or the supernatural world
Define eidlon
image; shade (dead soul)
What is the Ancient Greek term for “soul”
What were the 6 common ways of appeasing the dead?
Funeral, Bury valuables, ritual mourning, making it a tomb with a feast; human sacrifice; and wearing dark clothing/scratching yourself and crying
What are the four names for Hades and their meaning?
Pluto; Dis; Polydegmon (receiver of many); Polyxenos (host of many)
What are the 3 types of landmarks in the Underworld?
Rivers (Styx-abhorent; Lethe-oblivion); Tartarus; Elysium/Elysian Fields
Who are the two main workers in the Underworld and their role?
Charon (fairy man that must be paid to cross river Styx); Cerebrus (3 headed dog that keeps you from leaving the Underworld)
What is another name for the Eurinys and where did they live?
Furies; Underworld
What is the name for the Judges of the Underworld and what was their purpose?
Arbitrators; keep the peace between the dead
Name the 5 damned individuals and their treacherous deeds
Tityus (tried to rape Leto); Tantalus (feeds the gods his son Pelops at a banquet); Sisyphus (tried to cheat death by saying he had to go home to make sure his wife buried him correctly; refused to come back; must roll a boulder up a hill forever); Ixion (tried to rape Hera; strapped to a spinning wheel); Danaids
Who are the two sources for life in the Underworld?
Homer (Archaic) and Virgil
What is the basic story of Odysseus?
After the Trojan war he travels fromTroy to Ithaca (home) but it takes him 10 yrs to get there because of various “distractions” along the way
Who was Odysseus told to seek counsel from?
Tiresias, the now dead blind seer who lived for 7 generations
What is the story of Tiresias?
Killed a female snake having sex; turns into a female; later kills a male snake having sex and turns back into a male
Who do Hera and Zeus go to to settle their dispute on which gender enjoys sex more and what happens as a result?
Tiresias; he says women enjoy it more (meaning Hera was wrong) and Hera makes him blind. Zeus gives him prophecy and a long life to make up for it
How does Odysseus get into the Underworld to find Tiresias?
the land of Cimmerians; makes a pit of liquid and blood sacrifices so the dead come to him
Who are the dead that appear to Odysseus and what do they say?
Elpinor (former shipmate; asks for proper burial); His mother; Eidolon of Heracles; Menalaus King of Spartus( lives in Elysium); Achilles
What is the story of Orpheus of Thracion?
The greatest mortal musician whose wife (Eurydice) is killed by a snake bite; Goes to the Underworld where he begs to have her back (plays his music); gets her soul but is told he can’t look at her till they reach the surface; he looks and she is gone forever
Who is blamed for introducing homosexual activity and is ripped apart by followers of Dionysus?
What is Orphism?
A collection of writings that describe a different cosmogany that ensure a happy afterlife
What is different about the Orphism cosmogany (3)?
Chronos and Andrasteia (necessity); Aether and Chronos have Phane (makes everything); Zeus swallows Phanes along with all other creations
Who remakes all creations in Orphism?
Zeus and Nyx
In Orphism who is born from Zeus and Persephone?
In Orphism who are the parents of Dionysus?
Zeus and Semele
What is another name for metempsychosis?
According to Orphism, how could you break the cycle of reincarnation?
through Ascetic purity and magic formulas
Who did reincarnation influence (3)?
Plato, Virgil, and early christians
Who said that the soul is a divine spark in an Earthly body?
Who wrote the Myth of Er?
Plato in Republic (spoken by socrates)
What is the Myth of Er?
A soldier named Er dies in battle but comes back to life to tell what he saw
What does Er say that he learned?
Souls end up in a place where there are openings up and down; after 1000 yrs of torment or bliss you return to Earth to a life that you choose; approved by Atropos; Drink from river of forgetfulness before you return
What is the river of forgetfulness?
The soul is ____ and ____ law governs the world
immortal; moral
Where is the story of Aeneas found?
Virgil’s Aeneid
What is the story of Aeneas?
The Trojan Prince who has to find a new home after the war; guided by Sibyl of Cumae so he can ask his dead father for advice
What are the characteristics of Virgil’s Underworld?
There is a judgement; spirits live in Elysium or Tartarus for 1000 yrs; good spirits are purified so they can return to a new life on Earth
Who are the different groups of dead in the Underworld?
Infants, Wrongly convicted, suicides, died for love, soldiers
What are the 5 components of the Heroic pattern?
impossible tasks, divine parentage, quests, kingdoms to be won, divine help
What area is associated with Perseus?
The Argive Plain
What areas are associated with the Argive Plain?
Tiryns, Mycenae, Argos; AKA Argolid
What areas is Io associated with?
Argos and Egypt
Describe Io
An Oceanid descendant who is a priestess of Hera desired by Zeus
What is the story of Zeus and Io?
Zeus wants Io so he changes her into a cloud then a cow to hide her from Hera; Hera decides she wants the beautiful cow and Zeus gives it to her; Hera has Argus (made of eyes) watch over it; Zeus sends Hermes to kill Argus and he sings him to sleep to do so; Hera puts the eyes of Argus in the peacock
Describe the wanderings of Io and its cause
Tormented by a gadfly sent by Hera; she flees all over the world and meets Prometheus while he is tied down at Caucausus Mts; He says Zeus will free her once she reaches Egypt and they will have Epaphus; Descendant will be Heracles
Who is Io often associated with?
Describe the Danaids (who they were and what they did)
Descendants of Io who live in Argives; murder their husbands and bury the heads in a swamp; one spares her husband and they become the House of Argos
Who is Acrisius?
Grandson of the House of Argos who attempts to keep his daughter from men so that she can’s have a son who will kill him
Who does Acrisius consult about his future?
the Oracle at Delphi
Who are the two grandsons of the House of Argos?
Acrisius (rules in Argos); Proteus (rules in Tiryns)
Which grandson of the House of Argos has daughters but wants sons?
What is the story of the daughter of Acrisius?
imprisoned in an underground chamber by her father; Zeus comes to her in the form of a golden shower and impregnates her; Perseus is their son
What is the story of the early life of Perseus?
is put in a box with his mother and thrown into the ocean by Acrisius; they were rescued by Dictys (fisherman/brother of Polydectes) at Seriphos
Why does Perseus set out on his quest?
Polydectes wants his mother; she does not want him; Perseus protects her from him; Polydectes (pretending to be in persuit of another woman) sends Perseus on a quest for head of Medusa to get rid of him
How many Gorgons are there?
3; Medusa is the only one not immortal
Who offers to help Perseus and how?
Athena says the nymphs might know where to find Medusa; Graceae helps him find the nymphs
What are the magical implements of Perseus’ journey?
Cap of Hades (invisibility); winged sandals; Kibisis (leather pouch); Extra sharp sword; highly polished bronze shield
Describe the death of Medusa
pregnant at time of death; Pegasus and Chrysaor (giant) were born from her headless body; her head killed Polydectes when Perseus showed it to him
What is the story of Perseus and Andromeda?
Andromeda was going to be sacrificed to Ceto the sea monster because her mother (cassiopea) said she was more beautiful than the Nerieds; Perseus kills the monster with head of Medusa; son is Perses (ancestor of Persians)
Describe the death of Acrisius
Perseus returns to Argos;Acrisius flees; Perseus participates in a sporting event where he accidentally kills a spectator with a discus (Acrisius)
Define Apotropaic. What does it refer to?
wards off evil; the head of Medusa whose blood mixed with desert sand created scorpions and coral when mixed with sea weed
What is the deeper meaning behind the story of Perseus according to Freud?
Medusa’s head represents the female genitalia; reflection of the social conditions (overthrowing the mother to join the world of the father); medusa might not even be a part of the original Perseus story
Herakles is the descendant of ____
Herakles is a hero of ____ and physical strength
What kind of hero is Herkles?
Who are the children of Perseus?
Electryon (had 9 sons and one daughter); Alcaeus; Sthenelus
Who are the grandchildren of Perseus?
Alcemena; Amphitryon; Eurystheus
Who kills 8 of Electryon’s sons?
What is the story of Elecrtryon’s revenge?
Left Alcemena with Amphitryon to avenge his sons; Amphitryon kills Electryon and Alcmena says he has to avenge her brothers or she won’t have sex with him
What role does Zeus play in the quarrel between Alcmena and Amphitryon?
He disguises himself as Amphitryon and has sex with Alcmena
What happens as a result of Zeus boasting that his seed would rule Mycanae?
Hera speeds of the birth of Eurytheus (diluted descendant of Zeus) so he becomes king instead of Hercules
What is the story of the birth of Heracles?
Hera keeps the goddess of childbirth from assisting Alcmena; Alcmena’s servant tricks the goddess by saying the child is born so she unwinds herself and Heracles is born; the servant is turned into a weasel
Who are the children of Alcmena?
Heracles and Iphicles
What are the youthful deeds of Heracles?
killing serpents; created the Milky Way from spitting out Hera’s milk; Finest training and education; Kills Linus music teacher (self-defense?); has sex with 50 daughters of Thespius in one night
Who is the wife of Heracles?
Megara the daughter of Creon
What does Heracles do to his family and why?
He kills his wife and 3 children because Hera drives him mad
What is the punishment for Heracles’ crime of blood guilt?
he has to serve his cousin Eurytheus as punishment (12 labors; wins immortality)
What are the 12 Labors of Heracles?
Nemean Lion; Lernaean Hydra; Ceryneian Deer; Erymanthian Boar; Augean Stables;Stymphalian birds; Cretan Bull; Horses of Diomedes; Girdle of Hippolyta; Cattle of Geryon; Apples of the Hesperides; Cerberus
Where does the knowledge of the 12 labors come from?
the Temple of Zeus at Olympic Metopes
What are the side deeds of Hercles?
Alcestis; Cacus; Busiris
Describe the Various Deeds of Heracles?
Wants to remarry; wins Io;e in archery contest but her dad won’t give her up; stole horses to get back at him and kills his son Iphitus
What happens as a result of Heracles seeking cleansing from blood guilt a second time?
The Oracle at Delphi denies him; Heracles tries to steal the tripod; Apollo agrees to purify him if he serves a woman for 3 yrs and gives all earnings to Eurytus, King of Oechalia
what happened as a result of Heracles attempting to steal the tripod?
Apollo came down to stop him (tug of war) and Zeus had to separate them with a lightening bolt
Who bought Heracles from the slave market?
Omphale Queen of Lydia
What is the story of Heracles and Omphale?
She buys him at a slave market as a lover; they trade clothes in a cave one day so Pan tries to have sex with Heracles; reason why Pan gives up clothing (they’re deceptive)
Why does Pan give up wearing clothing?
Tries to have sex with Heracles who was dressed as a woman; believes clothes are deceptive
What is the meaning of “Deianira”?
what is the story of Heracles, Deianira and the Underworld?
Heracles battles river god Achelous for Deianira and wins; centaur Nessus tries to rape her on the way back; Heracles kills Nessus but gives Deianira a “love potion” from his blood before he dies; Heracles also fights for Iole and wins
Describe the death of Heracles
H goes away to make a sacrifice to Zeus; Deianira remembers H loves Iole and could be cheating so she coats a shirt in the “love potion” and sends it to H via their son as a gift; shirt torments him; shepherd lights his funeral pyre
Who else dies with Heracles?
the messenger and Deianira (suicide)
What happens after the death of Heracles?
the shepherd receives his bow and arrow; he becomes a god of Olympus and marries Hebe; Odysseus sees his “shade” in Underworld
Describe the character of Heracles
Sufferingl Averter of Evil (Alexikakos); monster-slayer; man of excess, most loved of all Greek heroes
Who vows to kill Heraklidae and who are they?
Eurystheus; many sons of Heracles+
Where were the Heraklidae hidden?
Who kills Eurystheus and what happens to his body?
hyllus; Alcmena defiles it (cuts it up)
What is the story of the conquering of Peloponnesse?
Heraklidae tried to conquer it and were told they would be successful at the 3rd harvest; thought it referred to agricultural harvests but it meant generations of ppl
What were the five areas of excellence for Classical Athens?
Architecture and Art (Parthenon); Drama (Aeschylus); Philosophy (Sophocles, Euripides); Military; Politics (democracy)
what are the three stories of Athenian origin?
from mortal Cecrops (snaky); Athena; Autochthanous (from the Earth itself–grasshoppers)
What are the characteristics of the Golden age? (cecrops)
Arts of civilization; worship of Zeus; End of Human sacrifice; building of cities; proper burial of dead; monogamous marriage
Who is the “man of wool and Earth”?
Who are the parents of Erichtnonius?
Hephaestus and wool (Athena)
What is the story of Athena and Erichthonius?
She wants to make him immortal; she places him in a basket and gives it to daughters of Cecrops telling them not to open it; they fall off the Acropolis for looking; Athena takes him back to raise as her own
What daughter of Cecrops is the only one that does not look in the basket?
Describe the Festival of Dew Carriers
based on myth of the daughters of Cecrops; Yearly ritual of the Arrhephoria (dew carriers–2 lived on Acropolis; wove robe for wooden statue of Athena in Erechtheem; sent to Athena’s grove and returned with strange object in baskets
Who are the daughters of Pandion?
procne and Philomela
What is the story of Procne and Tereus?
they marry and have son Itys; their wedding is overseen by the Furies; Tereus goes to fetch the sister Philomela, rapes her, cuts out her tongue, and abandons her telling Procne she died
How is Philomela rescued?
she weaves the story of her plight and sends it to Procne; Procne kills Itys and makes him into stew to get back at Tereus; sisters change into a nightingale and a swallow
What is the story of Theseus’ birth?
Aegeus king of Athens had no sons and went to the oracle to find out if he could get some; oracle said do not open the wine skin until he gets home but he was confused; he stays with Troezan who figures it out and tricks him into sleeping with his daughter Aethra; she also “sleeps” with Poseidon
what was the relationship between Theseus and his mortal father?
He had to be raised in secret and could not visit him until he was strong enough to lift a boulder where his father placed a sword and sandals
How does Theseus choose to reach Athens and what happens as a result?
Chooses land instead of sea; 6 Labors of Theseus
What are the six labors of Theseus?
Periphetes, the clubber; siris, the pinebender; Crommyonian Sow; Sciron the kicker; Cercyon the wrestler; Procrustes, the bed-fitters
What is the story of Theseus’ arrival at Athens?
Aegus does not recognize him because he is spelled by Madea; aegeus sends him to kill bull on Marathon (father of minotaur); Madea tries to poison Theseus but Aeugus saves him by recognizing the sword
What changes does Theseus make to Athens?
Synoicism, Panathenaic festival, assembly; abducts queen of Amazons
What is the result of the Amazonomachy?
Athenenians win

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