Myth Flashcards

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Achaians
a term used for Greek people in the Illiad
Achilles
Greek hero of the Trojan war, central character of the Illiad, war between Achilles and Agamemnon
Actaeon
In Euripides, The Bacchae, Artemis turns him into a stag and he is torn apart by his own hounds
Actium
Battle of Actium
Aegean Sea
Between Turkey & Greece, name given by Aegeus when he throws himself over a cliff into the sea
Aegeus
Father of Theseus, namesake of the Aegean sea after throwing himself into the sea
Aegis
In the Iliad, shield Athena carries, shows protection given by a highly religious authority
Aegisthus
Stayed behind during the Trojan war and marries Agamemnon’s wife Klytaimestra, kills Agamemnon upon his return. Both Aegisthus and Klytaimesta and killed by Agamemnon’s son Orestes when he returns from Athens
Aeneas
Son of Aphrodite, Leader of Troy’s Dardanian allies
Aeolus
In the Odyssey, keeper of the winds, gives O a bag of 4 winds and his men open it thinking O is hiding something from them, they are then blown back to Aeolia
Aetiological myth
a myth that explains cause and origin, or explains a name
Agamemnon
King of Argos, Trojan war between him and Achilles, wife Klytaimestra betrays him with Aegisthus, takes a lover called Cassandra, a Trojan princess to make Klytaimestra jealous
Agave
Mother of Pentheus, in the Bacchae by Euripides she tears her son apart under the influence of a Bacchic frenzy
Aglauros
Daughter of Cecrops/Kekrops, turned into a black marble statue after trying to interfere in the marriage of her sister Herse and Hermes
Agon
Athletic contest connected to religious festivals
Ajax
Fought in Trojan war but kills himself once back in Greece b/c he lost a contest to Odysseus
Alba Longa
Ancient city of Latium, near Rome, appears in Ovid
Alkinoos
King of the Phaecians, like Odysseus and offers him his daighter Nausikaa’s hand in marriage and to help guide him home
Amulis
Brother of Numitor who was the King of Alba Longa, Ovid
Anagnorisis
Scene of recognition in tragedy, character makes a critical discovery
Anakalypteria
The unveiling of the bride
Anaktoron
Where sacred objects were stored
Anchises
The moral lover of Aphrodite, in Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite
Andromeda
Greek princess chained to a rock as sacrifice for a sea monster, saved by her future husband Perseus, in Ovid
Anthropomorphism
Perception of a god in human form or presenting human qualities such as jealousy
Antigone
Daughter of Oedipus and his mother/wife, seeks a proper burial for her brother, struggles against Creon with this, the tragedy ends with Creon’s son killing himself because he is in love with Antigone, in Sophocles Antigone
Antikleia
Mother of Odysseus, he sees her in the underworld and she tells him how she died of grief waiting for his return
Antinoos
One of the evil suitors in Homer, wanted to kill Telemachos, was killed by O upon his return to Ithica
Aphrodite
Greek goddess of love and beauty, born from the genitals of Ouranous
Apollo
God of light & sun, truth & prophecy, Artemis is his twin sister, son of Leta and Zeus
Arachne
Great mortal weaver, claimed that her skills were better than Minerva’s, goddess challenged her to a contest and was so jealous of the mortals tapestry that she destroyed it and put her into the loom, turning her into a spider
Ares
Son of Zeus and Hera, god of bloodlust or slaughter
Arete
Queen of the Phaecians, married to Alkinoos, they offer O their daughter Nausikaa’s hand and to help guide him home
Argos
City in Greece, Agamemnon is the King of Argos
Ariadne
In Hesiod’s, Theogony, Theseus uses her to help slay the minotaur and then leaves her on an island where she is rescued by Dionysus
Aristoi
Noblemen in Ancient Greece
Artemis
Daughter of Zeus and Leta, twin bro Apollo, Godess of forests, childbirth, and the hunt, she is the huntress.
Ascanius/Iulus
Son of Aeneas, escaped to Latium, Iliad
Asclepius/Aesculapius
God of medicine and healing
Athamus
After remarrying to Ino, Ino plots to kills his twin sons, they are saved by a gold ram that is their mother Nephele, in Ovid
Athena
Virgin patron of Athens, goddess of wisdom, peace & warfare, in the Odyssey she helps O along his journey and helps Telemachos as well
Athenian Acropolis
“The” acropolis, best known in the world, every 4 years Athenians held the Panathenaea here (athletic competition)
Athenian Treasury
Built just below the temple of Apollo at Delphi as an offering to Apollo
Athlon
The prize
Athlos
The contest
Atreus
King of Mycenae, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus, exiled after murdering his half brother then came to power in Mycenae
Attica
subdivision in Greece containing Athens
Augustus
Banished Ovid to the Black Sea for publishing the Metamorphoses
Aulis
Place where Agamemnon had to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia to Artemis in order to get to Troy, infuriated Klytaimestra
Aurora
Goddess of Dawn
Autocthonous
Sons of the Earth, indigenous people
Autonoe
In Euripides, The Bacchae, her and her sisters (including Agave) spot Pentheus in a tree, Agave and the other sister tear him apart mistaking him for a wild animal in their frenzy
Bacchae
Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides bades on the story of King Pentheus and his murder by his mother Agave as punishment from Dionysus b/c Pentheus prohibited worship of Dionysus
Bacchantes
another word for Maenad, or worshipper of Dionysus
Bacchus
Dionysus, God of wine, ecstasy, madness and otherness, term often used in Rome
Cadmus
In Ovid, founder of the city of Thebes, planted the Spartoi
Caduces
a short heralds staff first used by Iris, messenger of Hera, Iris gave the staff to Hermes
Calchas
given a gift for interpreting the flight of birds from Apollo, tells greeks that Chryseis must be returned to her father for Apollo to stop the plague, leads to trojan war b/c of battle between Achilles and Agamemnon
Cassandra
A trojan princess that Agamemnon takes back to flaunt in front of Klytaimestra b/c he has heard rumor of her infidelity
Castor
Mortal son of Leta and Zeus, immortal brother Pollux, sister Helen of Troy
Cecrops/Kekrops
Mythical king of Athens, has 3 daughters Aglauros (turned to black marble), and Herse (marries Hermes)
Centaurs
Part human part horse, liminal beings
Ceres
death spirits, in Theogony
Chaos
The nothingness out of which the first existence appeared
Charites
Goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, sometimes considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, sometimes called the Graces
Charybdis
a giant whirlpool that tries to swallow O’s ship
Chorus
assembly of the oldest and wisest men of Argos
Chryselephantine
made of ivory and gold
Cthonic
pertaining to beneath the earth of the underworld
Cipus
Man that grows horns in Ovid, has the chance to be the king of Rome but exiles himself saying that they don’t need a king
Circe
In the Odyssey she turns O’s men into pigs and O is warned by Hermes to eat some herb so as not to fall under her magic and not to go to bed with her for she would steal his manhood
Cosmogony
Any theory that has to do with the origin of the universe
Cosmos/Kosmos
order, opposite of chaos
Creon
Ruler of Thebes in Oedipus and Oedipus thinks that Creon is conspiring against him. In Antigone he doesnt wish to give her brother a proper burial, resulting in his son killing himself
Crete
Largest Greek island, center of Minoan civilization, including Knosses
Cretan Zeus
Crete is birthplace of Zeus, he is widely praised, he was widely worshipped there & one theory says that Zeus was a great king of Crete and this progessed into him being a deity
Cupid
God of erotic love and beauty, same as Eros
Cyclades
A group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea
cyclopes/Polyphemus
In Homer, O discovers the cyclops Polyphemus, son of Poseidon and kills him, he has to suffer the wrath of poseidon
Cypris
Place where Aphrodite was born
dactylic hexameter
meter associated with epic poetry
Daedalus/Daidalos
“cunning worker”, said to have created the labyrinth
Daidala
anything that is cunningly devised, such as a labyrinth
Daphne
Cupid shot Apollo w/ an arrow and he fell in love with her, she turned into a tree
Delos
Birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, located in the Cyclades islands
Delphi
Home of Apollo, major worship site of Apollo, site of Omphalos stone
Demeter
Earth mother, goddess of Grain & Fertility, bringer of seasons, capable of destroying all life on Earth & almost does when her daughter Persephone is abducted
Demodokos
Minstrel who sings at the palace of Alkinoos in the Odyssey
Deucalion
The first man, him & his wife were only survivors of Zeus’s flood
Diana
Different word for Artemis
didactic poetry
poetry designed to give instruction
Dike
Greek goddess of moral justice
Diokles
One of the Thirty Tyrants elected to rule the city of Athens after the end of the Peloponnesian War
Diomedes
Great fighter of the Achaeans, fought great w/ Ajax, close companion of O
Dionysia
A large religious festival held in Athens to honor Dionysus
Dionysus
God of wine, madness and ecstasy
Echo
falls in love with Narcissus in Ovid
Eileithyia
Goddess of labor pains
ekphrasis
graphic, dramatic description of a visual work of art
ekstasis
ecstasy
Elektra
daughter of Agamemnon and Klytaimesta, plots w/ her brother Orestes to kill their mother Klytaimestra
Eleusinian Mysteries
initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis, very secretive
Eleusis
site of the Eleusinian mysteries
Elpenor
one of Odysseus’s men, very young, got drunk on Circe’s island, fell asleep on the roof and in the morning he fell to his death on the roof
Elpis
Personification of hope, last item in Pandora’s box
Elysian Fields
final resting place of the souls of the heroic
Enthousiasmos
enthusiasm
Eos
Goddess of dawn in greek mythology, Aurora in Latin
Ephebeia
where a young greek man would go to train
Ephebes
a young man of age in ancient greece
epic cycle
ancient greek poems that related the story of the trojan war
epic simile
detailed comparison in the form of a simile that is many lines
Epimetheus
accepted the gift of Pandora’s box from the gods
epinician poetry
poetry that praises, specifically athletic acomplishments
epithet
a descriptive word or phrase accompanying or occurring in place of the name of a person or thing, which has become a fixed formula
epopteia
final initiation rite in the Eleusinian Mysteries, understanding
Erechtheion
Greek temple on acropolis built by Erechtheus
Erechtheus
King of Athens, built the Erechtheion
Erichthonius
Legendary king of Athens, half snake half man
Erinyes/Furies
cthonic deities that represented the anger of the dead
Eris
Greek goddess of strife and discord
Eros
when capitalized it is the winged cupid, when spelled eros it is raw sexual drive
Eteocles
son of Oedipus, was a king of Thebes after his father was exiled, passed the throne to his uncle Creon
Eumaios
O’s swineherd & old friend before the Trojan war, first person he recognizes upon his return to ithica, O is disguised & Eumaios doesn’t recognize him but still treats him well
Eumenides
The furies become the Eumenides after Orestes is aquitted of his crime against his father, athena says they can help rule athens and they become protectors of the city
Eumolpos
one of the founders of the Eleusinian mysteries; first priests of Demeter, son of Poseidon and Chione
Europa
Ovid wrote of the abduction of Europa by Zeus in the form of a white bull
Eurydice
daughter of Apollo, wife of Orpheus, in Ovid she is bit by a snake and goes to the underworld, Orpheus goes to save her but isnt allowed to look back at her, they almost make it out when he turns around to look at her and Eurydice vanished from his sight forever
Eurykleia
O’s nurse, recognizes the scar on his foot
Eurymachos
one of the suitors
Gaia
primal greek goddess personifying the earth, cthonic deity
Galatea
She is a statue that King Pygmalion has made and he falls in love with her. Aphrodite brings her to life and they are married
Ganymedes
Divine hero, Trojan Prince
Glauke
One of the Nereides, Glauke fell in love with Jason, whom she married, and was later killed by the jealous Medea.
Gorgons
Terrifying female creature in greek lit, ie: medusa
Graces/Charites
goddesses of charm, beauty & creativity
Hades
god of the underworld, brother of Zeus and Poseidon
Hamartia
tragic flaw
Heinrich Schliemann
excavated Troy, Mycenea
Hekabe
Trojan Queen, wife of Priam, mothre of Hektor
Hekate
cthonic goddess of magic, witches
Hekatoncheires
the hundred handed monsters
Hektor
greatest fighter for troy in the trojan wars, son of hekabe and priam
Helen
of Troy, her abduction by Paris led to the Trojan war, daughter of Zeus and Leta
Helios
personification of the sun, Titan
Hellen
patriarch of the Hellenes, his name also means Greek
Hephaistos
god of technology, he was lame b/c of his injury, was married to Aphrodite but she had an affair with Ares
Hera
goddess of women and marriage, wife and older sister of Zeus
Heracles
greatest of greek heros, son of zeus aka hercules
Hermai
sculptures w/ the head of Hermes placed at boundaries, roads and crossing for protection
Hermaphroditus
son of Aphrodite & Hermes, was a handsome boy until the nymph Salmacis wrapped herself around him and they merged as one
Hermes
guide to the underworld, messenger of the gods, patron of boundaries and roads
hero
in greek, a demi god that displays courage and self sacrifice in the face of danger
Herse
most famous daughter of cecrops, married Hermes, her sister Aglauros tried to interfere and was turned to stone
Hestia
virgin goddess of the earth
Hiera
sacred objects
Hierophant
priest or teacher of the mysteries
hieros gamos
marriage between a god and a goddess
Himeros
son of aphrodite and ares (hymn to aphrodite) represents sexual desire or unrequited love
Hippodameia
daughter of king Oenomaus, Pelops wanted to marry her & her father didn’t want him to in fear of being killed by his son in law, he has a chariot race and Pelops if is the only one of her 13 suitors to ever survive it, the king dies and Pelops gets to marry her but they will be cursed along w/ their descendants
Homeric Hymns
a collection of ancient greek hymn celebrating individual gods
Homeridai
followers of Homer
homophrosune
shared thinking or knowledge between two or more people, in the Odyssey it refers to the strength of O & P’s marital bond
Horai
the seasons, goddesses of the season, seen in the Theogony
Hubris
violent, excessive pride
Icarus/Ikaros
He is the son of Daedalus and is commonly known for his attempt to escape Crete by flight, which ended in a fall to his death.
The Iliad
An epic poem set during the trojan war that tells of the battles between king agamemnon and achilles
Ino
goddess that saves O after Poseidon stirs up a storm to kill him, she gives him a veil to keep him safe after his ship wrecks, in her mortal life she was the sister of Autonoe and Agave, second wife of Athamas
Io
in Ovid, Zeus notices her and lusts after her, Zeus seduced her into the fields then turned her into a cow to avoid being caught by Hera
Iphigeneia
daughter of Agamemnon, he had to sacrifice her to Artemis to continue to Troy, infuriated Klytaimestra
Iris
messenger of Hera, first use of Caduceus, she gives it to Hermes
Ismene
daughter and half sister of Oedipus
Itys
Son of Tereus and Procne, after Tereus raped Procne’s sister Philomela, Procne killed Itys and fed it to Tereus as revenge
Jocasta/Epikaste
wife and mother of Odysseus
Judgment of Paris
an event that led to the trojan war, contest between Aphrodite, Athena and Hera, Paris would judge & give the fairest a golden apple
Julius Caesar
claimed ancestry to Aeneas of Troy, leader of the Roman Republic
Juno
Roman equivalent of Hera
Jupiter/Jove
Roman equivalent of Zeus, king of the gods, god of sky and thunder
Kalypso/Calypso
Goddess that falls in love with O and won’t let him leave
katabasis
a trip to the underworld
Keleos
King of Elusis, takes Demeter into his home to be a nurse for his son Demaphoon
Kleos
Renown or glory, what O and every other greek hero seeks
Klytaimestra
Wife of Agamemnon, betrays him w/ Aegisthus while he is away at war, killed by her son Orestes
Knossos
labyrinth, largest site on Crete, excavated by Sir Arthur Evans
komos
ritualistic, drunken procession
Kore
another name for Persephone, daughter of Demeter and queen of the underworld
Kouretes
in Ovid they were born from rainwater, otherwise, they were spirits that guarded over the infancy of Zeus
Kronos
leader and youngest of the first gen of titans
kykeon
ancient greek drink used at the height of eleusinian mysteries, made mainly of water and barley
labyrinth
designed and built by Daedalus to hold the Minotaur on Crete
Laertes
elderly father in law of Penelope, O’s father
Laistrygonians
a race of powerful giants that turn O’s men into dinner, only O’s ship makes it out of the harbor as all the others were sunk
Laius
divine hero and key person in the founding myth of Thebes
Latona
Roman equivalent of Leto
Leda
daughter of Thestius, mother of Helen of Troy, Klytaimestra, Pollux & Castor by Zeus, who seduced her then raped her in the form of a swan
Leto
daughter of the Titans, Zeus if the father of her twins Apollo & Artemis
liminal space
a place in which one’s sense of identity begins to disolve
Linear A
linear script used in ancient Crete
Linear B
early mycenaean form of greek used for writing, deciphered by sir arthur evans
Lotus Eaters
a dangerous race of people that live off of Lotus plants that are narcotic & addictive, O’s crew had to avoid these people
Lycaon
king of arcadia, tested zeus by feeding him a dish of a slaughtered child, zeus turned him into a wolf & killed his 50 sons
maenads
followers of Dionysus
Mars
roman equivalent of Ares
Medusa
a gorgon, or cthonic female monster
Megaron
great hall of the Mycenaean palace complexes
Menelaos
King of Sparta, husband of Helen (helen was abducted by Paris & became Helen of Troy)
Menos
manhood, or a liquid representing such ie: semen, blood
Mentes
Trojan war hero that Athena is disguised as when she goes to see Telemachos in the first book of the Odyssey
Mentor
When O left he had Mentor look after his son Telemachos
Mercury
Roman Equivalent of Hermes
Metis
2nd great wife of Zeus, mother of Athena, posed a threat to Zeus to he ate her and gained Metis (in the sense of knowledge), Metis was pregnant w/ Athena and she was born from Zeus’s head
metopes
a parthenon is an example of metopes
miasma
pollution or a stain, ie: Oedipus was the miasma of his city
Michael Ventris
deciphered Linear B
Minerva
Roman equiv of Athena
Minos
mythical king of crete, after his death became a judge of the dead in hades
Minotaur
part man part bull as described by Ovid, killed by theseus
misogyny
hatred of women or girls
Mnemosyne
a muse of memory
Moirai
greek goddess of fate and destiny
Muses
goddesses or spirits who inspire the creation of literature of art
mystes
an initiate to the first degree of the mysteries
mythos
story, legend or plot
Narcissus
saw his own reflection and fell in love with himself, echo then fell in love with him
Neptune
Roman equiv of Poseidon
Nestor
fought in the tojan war, friend of O, but is made fun of in the Iliad and The Odyssey
Niobe
taunted Leto b/c she only had 2 kids while Niobe had 14, Leto then send Apollo and Artemis to kill all of her kids
nostos
greek for homecoming
Numa
second king of Rome
Numitor
king of alba long until he was overthrown by his brother Amulis, Amulis murdered his sons then was murdered by Numitors grandsons and Numitor was king again
nymphs
beautiful female spirits typically followers of a divine beings ie: artemis, apollo, dionysus
Odysseus
protagonist of the Odyssey, fought at troy and is now trying to find his way back to Ithaca
Oedipus
mythical greek king of thebes that fulfilled a prophecy by killing his father and marrying his mother bringing disaster on his city and family
Oenomaus
father of Hippodamia, killed 13 of his suitors before losing a chariot race that resulted in death for him and his daughter married Pelops
oide
song
Okeanos
world ocean, personified as a Titan
Olympia
sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, site of the Olympics, temple of Zeus is here
Olympians
12 principal gods of the greek pantheon residing upon mt olympus
omophagy
eating of raw flesh, typically during cult worship
omphalos
ancient stone that marks the center on the universe at Delphi, literally means navel
Oresteia
Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus concerning the curse of the house of Atreus
Orestes
son of agamemnon, kills his mother and eventually breaks the curse of Atreus
ouranic
of the heavens or the sky
Ouranos
father sky, son and husband of Gaia
Panathenaia
observance of Athena’s bday, greatest festival in athens
Pandora
first woman, each god helped create her by giving her unique gifts, she opened a jar releasing all of the evils of the earth but hope which remained in the pithos
Pandrosos
least important daughter of cecrops
panhellenic sanctuaries
at Delphi and Olympia, had a space for people to gather and an altar for the main act of sacrifice
pantheon
all the gods collectively
paraskene
theater
Paris/Alexandros
Prince of Troy, abducts Menelaus’s wife Helen, Agamemnon & Menelaus go to troy to get her back starting the trojan war
parthenogenesis
asexual reproduction found in females, ie: Gaia
Parthenon
temple at the top of the athenian acropolis, most important structure of classical Greece
parthenos
a virgin, epithet of several greek goddesses esp. Athena
Pasiphae
daughter of Helios, mother of the Minotaur
Pederasty
Older men loving younger boys or children
Peisistratus
song of nestor who is the king of pylos, nestor sends his son to accompany Telemachos to sparta in the Odyssey
Peithein
to persuade
Peitho
goddess of persuasion
Peleus
father of Achilles, greek hero
Peloponneisan War
war between sparta and athens, sparta won
Peloponnesus
large peninsula region in southern greece
Pelops
Father Tantalus cut him up served him to the gods, demeter ate his shoulder, Hephaistos gave him an ivory shoulder, he courted Hippodamia despite her father ; beat him in a chariot race led to Oenomaus’s death
Penelope
wife of O
Pentheus
king of Thebes, killed by his mother Agave in a frezy caused by Dionysus in the Bacchae
Peplos
any woven garmet, specifically a robe
peripeteia
turning point of a tragedy
Persephone
daughter of Demeter and Zeus, queen of the underworld during her time down there
Perses
Titan god of destruction, father of Hekate
Perseus
founder if the Mycenae, provided founding myths in the cult of the 12 olympians, killed Medusa
Phaethon
son of Helios, flew chariot too close to the sun
Phaiakians/ Phaeacians
land where odysseus washes ashore, king alkinoos queen arete, they love O and treat him well
phallocentrism
centered on the masculine point of view
Phemius
poet who performs songs at O’s house in Ithaca, helps O conceal sounds of dying suitors w/ wedding songs, is spared the horrible death of the suitors
Philomela
Princess of Athens, raped by her sisters husband Tereus, she told Procne and she killed her son by Tereus Itys and fed him to Tereus
Picus
Circe turned him into a woodpecker
Pithos
Jar
Pluto
Roman equiv of Hades
poesis
a poetic work
polis
a city-state
Polydeuce/Pollux
Immortal brother of Castor, sons of Leta and Zeus
polymetis
literally many skills, an epithet used by Homer for O
Polynices
Son of Oedipus and his mother Jocasta, kings of thebes after Oedipus was exiled and as a result of their fathers curse they didnt share power equally and died as a result
Pomona
only Roman goddess, associated w/ flowering and change of season
Poseidon
in the Odyssey he is O’s nemesis, makes his journey hard as possible, brother of Zeus and Hades
Potnia Theron
Minoan Goddess, taken on by Artemis
Priam
King of Troy
Princeps
the first or principal man, Augustus gave himself this title because he didn’t want to be called king but wanted all of the power
Procne
sister of Philomela, princes of Athens, her husband Tereus raped Philomela so Procne kills her son Itys and feed him to Teresus
Prometheus
Titan son who stole fore from Zeus and gave it to mortals, Zeus gave him an endless punishment of being bound to a rock while an eagle eats his liver and every day the process repeats
Propylaia
momumental gateway that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens
Proserpina
Roman equiv of Persephone
psychopompos
spirits or deities that escort people to the afterlife, they don’t judge they just provide safe passage
Pyramus
In Ovid, a tale of star crossed lovers Pyramus and Thisbe, made fun of in A midsummer nights dream, they were forbade to be together from their parents, Pyramus thinks Thisbe has been eaten by a lion but she escaped, he kills himself, upon finding his body she too kills herself and they are buried together
Pyrrha
wife of Deucalion, they were the only two suriviors after the great flood of Zeus
Pythagoras
mathmatician
Pythia
Oracle named after Pytho
Pytho
Delphi, the place where the snake will rot
Python
the snake that is killed and will rot
Quirinus
Sabine god of war
Remus
One of the vestal virgins of Rome
Rhea
Mother of the Gods, Titaness daughter, mother of the Olympian Gods
Rhea Silvia
Mythical mother of Remus and Romulus, the founders of Rome
Romulus
One of the vestal virgins of Rome
Salmacis
nymph falls in love with Hermaphroditus, she jumps on him and they become one, a hermaphrodite
satyr play
modern day burlesque, include drinking and overt sexuaity
satyrs
male companions of pan and Dionysus, perpetual erections, maenads beat them off with a thyrsus
Semele
Dionysus’s mom, lover of Zeus, killed by Zeus’s thunderbolt
Sibyl
Oracle at Delphi
Siphnian Treasury
building dedicated to the greek city state of Delphi
Sir Arthur Evans
Most famous for excavating Troy and Knosses
Sirens
the island of the sirens, in the Odyssey they sing a lovely song that promises to reveal the future trying to lure O’s crew in to Siren Island.
Sisyphus
king that was cursed & had to roll a boulder up a hill everyday and watch it fall back down, in Ovid, Orpheus’s song he sang to get Eurydice back from the underworld was so beautiful that Sisyphus sat on his rock and listened
skene
background for the platform stage, backdrop
Skylla
six headed monster who in the odyssey swallows one man for each head, ate 6 of O’s men but was still the better choice then Charybdis
Sparagmos
a living animal or human would be sacrificed to Dionysus by being torn apart, followed my Omophagia
spartoi
ancestors of the Spartans, Cadmus sowed them from dragons teeth and threw a rock at them when they were grown out of fear, they thought one of the others had done it & fought each other to the death until only 5 remained
Sphinx
The sphinx guarded the entrance to thebes and asked all the famous riddle, she devoured everyone that couldn’t answer it, Oedipus answers the riddle and the Sphinx dies
Stoa of the Athenians
In the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, dedicated by the Athenians, built with money won during the Persian war
Styx
river that formed the boundary between Earth & the underworld, circles the underworld 9 times
Syncretism
Greek and Roman mythology coming together
Synoikism
political unity
Tantalos
Tantalos cut up & boiled his son Pelops & fed him to the gods, none ate but Demeter who accidentally ate a piece of his shoulder but Hephistos made him an ivory one and Dememter presented it, Tantalos was sent to the deepest underworld Tartarus where he would continually reach for fruit that would retreat and water that would recede
Teiresias
The Theban poet O meets in the underworld, he tells them that Poseidon is punishing them for blinding his son the cyclops, he tells O’s fate that he will return home
Telemachos
Brave son of O, was an infant when he left, but now a young man who thinks his father to be dead until Athena tells him he isn’t, he goes in search of news of his father
telesterion
big room for the Eleusinian mysteries where they were shown the secrets of Demeter
Tereus
Husband of Procne, he rapes Procne’s sister Philomela and she weaves the story and send it to Procne who kills her son with Tereus and feeds it to him
theatron
where the audience of a greek tragedy sat to view the performance
theogony
a poem by Hesiod describing the origin and genealogy of the gods of the ancient greek
Theoklymenos
In the O, he is the son of a famous profit that Telemachos meets on Pylos, he is fleeing persecution and Telemachos allows his to come on his ship w/ him
Theseus
Legendary founder-King of Athens, slew the Minotaur w/ the help of Ariadne, he used her then left her on an island off of Crete where she was rescued by Dionysus
Thetis
a sea nymph, of of the 50 Nereids
Thisbe
the woman of Thisbe & Pyramus, star crossed lovers who were forbidden to do so by their families, they plan to meet in the woods, Pyramus thinks Thisbe is eaten by a lion & slays himself, Thisbe finds him then kills herself w/ the same sword, they are buried together
Thyestes
Son of Pelops (king of Olympia), him & twin brother Atreus were exiled for desiring the throne of Olympia, they rose to power in Mycenaea
titanomachy
great battle of the gods, Titans (older gods) vs Olympians (newer gods)
Titans
A race of powerful older gods that ruled during the golden age, they were overthrown by the Olympians led by Zeus in the Titanomachy
Tithonus
lover of the Titan God of dawn Eos, in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite Eos asks for Tithonus to be immortal but forgets to ask for eternal youth,
tragos
goat, song, meaning tragedy
Triptolemus
one of the original priests of Demeter, taught people how to sow & plow fields
Trojan horse
Greeks built a giant horse & filled it w/ troops, the presented it to Troy as a gift, at night the greek army entered and destroyed the city of Troy
Tyndareus
in Euripides, Orestes, he was trying to get the death penalty for Orestes for killing his mother b/c she was the daughter of Tyndareus, his wife was seduced by Zeus & had Castor, Pollux, Helen and Klytaimestra
Typhoeus/Typhon
final son of Gaia, deadliest greek monster, his hands had a hundred dragon heads each, he was sent by Gaia to kill Zeus b/c he had imprisoned the Titans, Zeus defeats Typhoeus
Ulysses
Roman equiv of O
Venus
Roman equiv of Aphrodite
Vertumnus
Roman god of change of season and plant growth, in Ovid he tricked Pomona by disguising himself as an elderly woman then warning her of the dangers of rejecting a suitor, the only tale in Ovid that was purely Latin
Vesta
Roman goddess of hearth, home and family
Vestal Virgins
sacred virgins of rome, female priestesses of Vesta, required not to have sex, only female priests in Roman religion
Vulcan
Roman equiv of Hephaistos
xenia
hospitality, courtesy, especially shown to travelers
Zanes
statues built with money that athletics had to pay during the Olympics if they took drugs or violated rules
Zeus
King of the Gods, ruler of mt olypmus, god of sky and thunder,

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