Latin vocabulary

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a, ab

[away] from, by

 

(absent)

abacus

 

counting board

square slab on column

 

(abacus)

ac
and
acer, aceris

maple tree

 

acer, acris, acre

sharp

 

(acrid)

acidus

acid

 

(acid)

ad

to, toward

 

(advance)

addendum

thing to be added

 

(if you want to add something to your will, the lawyer will write an addendum)

addere, additum

to add

 

(add)

aequus

equal

 

(equal…notice that the first vowel of the diphthong disappears)

agendum

thing to be done

 

(agenda…the things to be done at a meeting)

agenda
things to be done
ager, agri

field

 

(agriculture)

agere, actus

(-igere)

to do, to drive, to act

 

(agent, act)

agricola

farmer

 

(agriculture)

ala

wing

 

(ala)

albus

white

 

(albumen)

alga

sea-weed

 

(algae)

alias

at another time

 

(alias)

alibi

at another place

 

(alibi)

alimonia

sustenance

 

(alimony)

almus

nourishing

 

(alma mater)

alma mater
nourishing mother
altus

high

 

(altitude)

alumna
foster-daughter
alumnus
foster-son
alveolus

small cavity

 

(in medicine, an alveola is a small pit on the surface of an organ…plural, alveolae)

amare, amatus

to love

 

(amorous)

ambi

both, around

 

(ambidextrous)

ambitio, ambitionis

canvassing, walking around

 

(ambition)

ambulare, ambulatus

to walk

 

(ambulance)

amicitia

friendship

 

(amicable)

amicus
friend (male)
amica
friend (female)
amor
love
ancilla

maid-servant

 

(ancillary)

angustus

narrow

 

(anguish)

augustus
noble, dignified, worthy of honor
anima

soul, breath

 

(animated)

animus

mind

 

(animus – a feeling of spite)

annus

year

 

(annual)

ante

before

 

(antebellum)

antenna

sail-yard

(the beam on a ship that supports the sail)

 

(antenna)

anterior

more in front

 

(anterior)

antiquus

old

 

(antique)

apex, apicis

high point

 

(apex, pl. apices)

apis

bee

 

appendix, appendicis

hanging on to

 

(appendix)

aqua

water

 

(aquarium)

aquila

eagle

 

(aquiline)

arbor

tree

 

(arboretum)

arena

sand

 

(arena)

argentum

silver

 

(Ag on the periodic table = silver)

argumentum

proof, subject

 

(argument)

ars, artis

craft, skill

 

(art)

asinus

donkey, ass

[image]

(asinine)

asper, aspera, asperum

rough

 

(aspersion)

astrum

star

 

(astral)

ater, atra, atrum

black

 

(atrium)

atrium
Central room or hall in a Roman house.  It may have been called that from the primitive one-room hut that was darkened (ater) from the smoke in the central hearth.
audax, audacis

daring, bold

 

(audacious)

auditor, auditoris

listener

 

(auditorium)

audire, auditus

to hear

 

(audition)

aureus

golden

 

(Au = gold)

auricularis
pertaining to the ear
auris
ear
aurum
gold
australis

southern

 

(Australia)

auxilium

help, aid

 

(auxiliary)

avis

bird

 

(aviation)

bacca

berry

 

(baccalaureate…the bacca in this word relates to the laurel berry.  Laurel wreaths are still a symbol of honor.)

baccalaureus

bachelor

 

(Bachelor of Arts = Baccalaureus Artium)

 

 

bacillus

small staff

 

(bacillus = a rod-shaped bacterium)

bacterium
staff
beatus

happy, blessed

 

(beatitudes {Blessed are the poor…etc.})

bellum

war

 

(belligerent)

bene

well

 

(benefit)

bibere

to drink

 

(imbibe)

biennium

two-year period

 

(biennial)

bis

twice

 

(biannual)

bonus

good

 

(bonus)

borealis

northern

 

(Aurora borealis)

bos, bovis

ox, cow

 

(bovine)

(That’s why our pet cows may be called “Bossy”.)

 

brevis

short

 

(brevity)

bronchus

bronchial tube

 

(bronchial)

cactus

prickly plant

 

(cactus)

cadere, casus 

(-cidere)

to fall

(Deciduous trees let their leaves fall.)

caecum

blind

 

(our large intestine begins with a “cul-de-sac” called the caecum)

caedere, caesus 

(-cidere, -cisus)

to cut, to kill

 

(suicide)

caeruleus

dark blue

 

(cerulean)

calamitas

disaster

 

(calamity)

calcaneum

heel

 

(the calcaneus is the bone that forms our heel)

calculus

little stone

 

(calculus)

callosus

hardened, callous

 

(callous)

calx, calcis

stone

 

(calcium)

camera

room

 

(camera)

cancer, cancri

crab

 

(cancer)

candidus

white

(A Roman running for office was “candidatus”, wearing a white toga.)

 

(candid)

canis

dog

 

(canine)

caper, capri

goat

 

(capricorn)

capere, captus 

(-cipere, -ceptus)

to take, to seize

 

(capture)

capillus

hair

 

(capillary)

capitulum

little head

 

(capital)

caput, capitis

head

 

(capital)

caritas, caritatis

love

 

(charity)

caro, carnis

flesh

 

(chili con carne)

carus

dear

 

(charity)

castus

pure

 

(chaste)

casus

opportunity, chance

 

(casualty)

causa

reason, motive, cause

 

(cause)

cavere, cautus

to beware

 

(caveat)

cedere, cessus

to go, to yield

 

(secede)

 

celer

swift

 

(accelerate)

cella

store room

 

(cell)

centum

hundred

 

(century)

cerebellum

little brain

 

(cerebral)

cerebrum

brain

 

(the cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain)

cernere, cretus

to separate, discern

 

(discern)

certus

sure, certain

 

(certain)

cervix, cervicis

neck

 

(cervix)

ceteri, ceterae, cetera

other

 

(etc. = et cetera, “and the others”, which is

why you should never say “and etc.”.)

charta

charter, paper, document

 

(chart)

ciborium

drinking cup

 

(the ciborium is the vessel that holds the bread in holy communion)

cicada

cricket

 

(cicada)

[image]

cicatrix, cicatricis

scar

 

(cicatrix)

cilium

eye-lid

 

(eyelashes are called cilia in anatomy class)

cinerarium

place for ashes

 

(incinerate)

 

cinis, cineris
ashes
circum

around, about

 

(circle)

circus

ring

 

(circus)

cirrus

curl

 

(cirrus clouds are thin and filmy)

cisterna

subterranean reservoir

 

(cistern)

citare, citatus

to cite

 

(citation)

civis

citizen

 

(civic)

classicus

significant

 

(classical)

claudere, clausus

(-cludere, -clusus)

to shut, close

 

(clause)

clavis

key

 

(clavicle)     [image]

clinare, clinatus

to lean, recline

 

(recline)

coccus

berry

 

(a coccus is a spherical bacterium)

codex, codicis

ancient book

 

(codex)

[image]

colonia

farm, estate

 

(colony)

colossus

large statue

 

(colossal)

coma

hair of the head

 

(comet = a “hairy star”)

 

compos, compotis

in possession of

 

(non compos mentis = not sound of mind)

consortium

fellowship

 

(consortium)

constringere, constrictus

to draw together

 

(constrict)

continuum

uninterrupted

 

(continuous)

contra

against

 

(contradict)

copia

abundance

 

(cornucopia)

[image]

cor, cordis
heart
corium
hide, skin
cornu
horn
corolla

little crown

 

(corolla = the petals of a flower)

corona

crown

[image]       (corona)      [image]

corpus, corporis

body

 

(corporation)

cortex, corticis

bark, rind, skin

 

(cortex – the outer region of the brain is its cortex.  The bark of a tree is also called the cortex.)

credere, creditus

to believe

 

(creed)

crimen, criminis

accusation, fault

 

(criminal)

crocus

saffron

 

(crocus)

[image]

crux, crucis

cross

 

(crucial)

cubiculum

bedroom

 

(cubicle)

cubile

bed

 

(cubicle)

culina

kitchen

 

(culinary)

culpa

fault, blame

 

(culpable)

cum

with

 

(cum, as in “garage-cum-workshop”)

cumulus

heap, mass

 

(cumulus)

[image]

cuneus

wedge

 

(cuneiform)

cura

care, worry, concern

 

(secure = free from worry)

curare, curatus

to care for

 

(cure)

currere, cursus

to run

 

(cursor)

curriculum

little course

 

(curriculum)

curriculum vitae
the course of a life
cutis

skin

 

(cuticle)

damnare, damnatus

(-demnere)

to declare guilty

 

(damn)

damnum
loss, injury

dare, datus

(-dere, -ditus)

to give

 

(data)

datum

something given

 

(data is the plural form)

data
things given
de

down, off, down from, about

 

(descend)

decimus

tenth

 

(decimal)

delicatus

soft, delightful

 

(delicate)

delictum

crime

 

(corpus delictum = “the body of a crime”…i.e., the physical evidence)

dens, dentis

tooth

 

(dental)

desideratum

something desired

 

(desire)

deus

god

 

(deity)

dea

goddess

 

(deity)

dexter

right

 

(dexterity)

[image]

dicere, dictus

to say, to tell

 

(dictionary)

dies

day

 

(diary)

digitus

finger

 

(digital)

dignus

worthy

 

(dignity)

dis-

apart

 

(distance)

discus

flattened disk

 

(disc)

docere, doctus

to teach

 

(doctor)

doctor
teacher
dominus

lord, master

 

(dominate)

domus

house

 

(domicile)

donum

gift, present

 

(donation)

dormire, dormitus

to sleep

 

(dormitory)

dorsum

back

 

(dorsal)

ducere, ductus

to lead

 

(duct)

dulcis

sweet

 

(dulcet)

dum

while, as long as

 

(dum spiro, spero…while I breathe, I hope)

duo

two

 

(The Dynamic Duo)

[image]

duodenum

length of twelve

(12 fingers’ breadth)

(the duodenum is the first length of the small intestine)

durus

hard

 

(durable)

dux, ducis

leader

 

(duke)

elephas, elephantis

elephant

 

[image]

equus

horse

 

(equine)

errare, erratus

to stray, wander

 

(err)

(errare humanum est…to err is human)

erratum

fault, error

 

(error)

est

(he, she, or it) is

 

(essence)

ex, e

out of, from

 

(exit)

exemplum

sample, copy

 

(exemplary)

e.g.

exempli gratia

for the sake of an example

 

Say “for example”, when you encounter this abbreviation in an English reading.

exterior

outer

 

(exterior)

extra

outside, beyond

 

(extra)

extremus

outermost

 

(extreme)

facere, factus 

(-ficere, -fectus)

to do, to make

 

(fact)

facies

face, surface

 

(face)

facilis

easy

 

(facility)

fama

reputation

 

(fame)

familia

family

 

(family)

fari, fatus

to speak

 

(fate)

fatuus

foolish

 

(fatuous)

febris

fever

 

(February is “fever-month”.)

fecundus

fruitful

 

(fecundity)

felix, felicis

happy

 

(felicity)

femina

woman

 

(feminine)

ferre, latus

to bear, to carry

 

(transfer, translate)

ferrum
iron
fiat

let there be made, let it be

 

(Fiat)

[image]

fidelis

faithful, true

 

(fidelity)

fides

trust, faith

 

(Fido)

[image]

fieri, factus

to become, to be made

 

(fact)

filia

daughter

 

(filial)

filius

son

 

(affiliate)

filum

 

(filament)

thread
findere, fissus

 to split 

 

(fission)

[image]

finis

end

 

(final)

firmus

strong

 

(firm)

fiscus

purse, treasury

 

(fiscal)

flavus

yellow

 

(flavinoid)

flectere, flexus

to bend

 

(flex)

florere

to flower

In an English reading, especially about history,  fl. gives the dates when someone “flourished”.

(Edgar Degas (fl.1859-1907) was one of the founders of Impressionism.)

flos, floris

flower

 

(floral)

fluere, fluxus

to flow

 

(fluent)

focus

hearth, fireplace

 

(focus)

foetidus

foul-smelling

 

(fetid)

folium

leaf

 

(folio)

(The First Folio is the oldest collection of Shakespeare’s plays.)

foramen, foraminis

opening

 

(foramen – an opening in a bone)

forma

shape, figure

 

(form)

formula

pattern, scheme

 

(formula)

fortis

brave, strong

 

(fort)

fortuna

fate

 

(fortune)

forum

market-place, meeting-place

 

(forum)

fragilis

easily broken

 

(fragile)

francus

Frankish, French

 

(lingua franca – a phrase in Latin relating to the current language of political power – once it was French, now it is English…but we still say lingua franca in Latin.)

frangere, fractus
to break
frater, fratris

brother

 

(fraternity)

frigus, frigoris

coldness

 

(frigid)

fugere, fugiturus

to flee

 

(fugitive)

fulvus

tawny

 

(fulvous – a yellowish-brown color)

fumus

smoke

 

(fume)

fundere, fusus

to pour

 

(fusion)

[image]

fungus

mushroom

 

(fungus)

furor, furoris

madness

 

(fury)

fuscus

dark brown

 

(fuscous – brownish-grey)

galbinus
(greenish) yellow
gaudere

to rejoice

 

(gaudy)

gelare, gelatus

to freeze

 

(gelatinous)

gemma

bud, gem

 

(gem)

genius

guardian spirit

 

(genius)

gens, gentis

clan, tribe

 

(genetic)

genu

 

knee

[image]

[image] (genuflect)      [image]

 

genus, generis

race, class, birth

 

(general)

gerere, gestus

to bear, to bring

 

(gestation)

gignere, genitus

to bring forth, give birth to

 

(genital)

gladius

sword

 

(gladiolus)

[image]

gloria

renown, glory

 

(glory)

gluteus

buttock

 

(gluteus maximus – that’s what you are exercising on a hip abduction machine at the gym)

gradi, gressus 

(-gredi)

to step, to move

 

(grade)

gradus

step, degree

 

(gradual)

granum

seed

 

(grain)

gratia

favor

 

(gratitude)

gratus

pleasing

 

(gratis)

gravis

heavy, serious

 

(gravity)

grex, gregis

flock, herd

 

(congregation)

gubernare

to govern

 

(gubernatorial)

gutta

to drop

 

(gutter)

habere, habitus

(-hibere, -hibitus)

 

to have, to hold

 

(habit)

haerere, haesus

to stick, cling

 

(adhere, adhesive)

halare, halatus

to breathe

 

(inhale)

helix, helicis

spiral

 

(helix)

[image]

herba

plant, grass

 

(herbal)

hic, haec, hoc

this 

hic – this [man]

haec – this [woman]

hoc – this [thing]

An ad hoc committee meets just for THIS issue.

hircus

goat

 

(hircine)

[image]

homo, hominis

human being, man [as opposed to animal]

 

(Hominid)

hora

hour

 

(hour)

 

hortus

garden

 

(horticulture)

humerus

shoulder

 

(the humerus is also called the funny bone…)

humanus

human

 

(human)

ignis

fire

 

(ignite)

ilium

flank, groin

 

(the ilium is the broad upper point of the hip bone)

imperium

power, rule

 

(imperial)

in

in, on, into, onto

 

(in)

in-

in, on, not

 

(illegal)

incendere, incensus

to burn

 

(incense)

incognitus

unknown

 

(incognito)

incunabulum

beginning, cradle

 

(In English, an incunabulum is a book printed [on a printing press] before 1501.)

index, indicis

forefinger

 

(index)

inferior

lower

 

(inferior)

infinitus

infinite

 

(infinite)

infra

below

 

(infra-structure)

insignis

remarkable

 

(significant)

(In Latin, the in- makes the word stronger, but in English insignificant is a negative term.)

insula

island

 

(insulate)

inter

between, among

 

(interrupt)

interim

meanwhile

 

(“in the interim”)

interior

inner

 

(interior)

intimus

inmost

 

(intimate)

intra

within

 

(intramural)

ipse, ipsa, ipsum

himself, herself, itself

(intensive…she did it herself.)

 

(ipso facto – by the fact itself)

ire, itum

(-ient)

to go

 

(exit)

iris, iridis

rainbow

 

(iris)

[image]

jacere, jactus

(-jectus)

to throw

 

(eject)

jocundus

cheerful

 

(jocund)

[image]

judex, judicis

judge

 

(judicial)

juglans, juglandis

walnut

[image]

 

(gland)

jugum

yoke

[image]

(jugate – in botany, having leaflets in pairs)

jurare, juratus

to swear

 

(jury)

jus, juris

right, law

 

(jury)

junior

younger

 

(junior)

justitia

justice

 

(justice)

juvenis

young

 

(juvenile)

labi, lapsus

to slip

 

(lapse)

 

(lapsus linguae – a slip of the tongue)

labium

lip

 

(labial)

labor

work

 

(labor)

lapsus

slip

 

(lapse)

 

(A lapsus linguae is a slip of the tongue.)

lac, lactis

milk

 

(lactation)

lacrima

tear 

[image]

(lacrimal)

lacuna

hole, gap

 

(a lacuna is a missing part in a manuscript)

lamella

small, thin plate

 

(In biology, a lamella is a thin plate of bone.)

lamina

thin plate, covering

 

(laminate)

larva

specter, mask

 

(In biology, a larva is the young of any invertebrate animal.)

latex, laticis

fluid

 

(latex)

latus

wide

 

(lateral)

latus, lateris

side, flank

 

(lateral)

laus, laudis

praise

 

(laudatory)

(magna cum laude – with great praise)

legare, legatus

to send

 

(delegate)

legere, lectus

(-ligere)

 

to read

 

(lectern)

legio, legionis

legion

[image]

leo, leonis

lion

 

(leonine)

levis

light

 

(light in weight or fickle or inconsequential)

(levitate)

lex, legis

law

 

(legal)

liber, libri

book

 

(library)

licere, licitum

to be permitted

 

(illicit)

lignum

wood

 

(ligneous)

limen, liminis

threshold, door

 

(supraliminal)

linere, litus

to smear

 

(liniment)

lingua

tongue, language

 

(linguistic)

lis, litis

legal suit

 

(litigate)

(lis pendens – hanging lawsuit.)

littera

letter (of the alphabet)

 (literature)

(An epistula is a letter you write to a friend

and send through the mail,

as in “the Epistles of Paul”.)

literatim

letter for letter

(an adverb)

 

(literal)

lividus

blue

 

(livid)

locus

place

 

(location)

loqui, locutus

to speak

 

(loquacious, elocution)

lorica

breastplate

 

(lorica)

[image]

lucrum

gain, profit

 

(lucrative)

luctari

to struggle

 

(ineluctable)

ludere, lusus

to play

 

(illusion)

lumen, luminis

light

 

(as in daylight, or a lamp)

 

(illuminate)

luna

moon

 

(lunar)

luridus

pale yellow

 

(lurid)

luteus

yellowish

 

(luteous – having a yellow color tinged with green)

lux, lucis

light 

(as in daylight)

 

(translucent)

machina

machine

 

(machine)

macula

stain, blotch, blemish

 

(immaculate)

magister, magistri

teacher

 

(magistrate)

magnus

large, great

 

(magnify)

majestas, majestatis

dignity

 

(majesty)

major

greater

 

(major)

male

badly

 

(malice)

malleus

hammer

 

(mallet)

malus

bad

 

(mal-wear)

manus

hand

 

(manufacture)

mare, maris

sea

 

(marine)

mater, matris

mother

 

(maternal)

matrix, matricis

womb

 

(matrix)

maximus

greatest

 

(maximum)

medicus

physician

 

(medical)

medius

middle of

 

(medium)

melior

better

 

(ameliorate)

memorandum

a thing to be mentioned

 

(memorandum)

memorare, memoratus

to mention

 

(memory)

mens, mentis

mind

 

(mental)

merces, mercedis

pay

 

(mercenary)

mergere, mersus

to plunge

 

(submerge)

meus, mea, meum

my

 

(mea culpa – my bad!)

miles, militis

soldier

 

(military)

mille

thousand

 

(million)

mina

mina 

(An ancient coin…an agricultural worker

in the ancient world might earn about 4 minae per year.  A mina was worth 1/60th  of a talent, and with a talent, you could build a warship.)

minimus

smallest

 

(minimum)

minor

smaller

 

(minor)

miscere, mixtus

to blend

 

(mix)

miser

wretched, unhappy

 

(miserable)

mittere, missus

to send

 

(submit)

mobilis

mobile, movable

 

(mobile)

modulus

small measure

 

(module)

modus

measure, method

 

(module)

mollis

soft

 

(mollify)

momentum

period of time

 

(moment) 

monere, monitus

to warn

 

(monitor)

mora

delay

 

(moratorium)

moratorium

period of delay

 

(moratorium)

morbus

disease

 

(morbid)

mors, mortis

death

 

(mortal)

mos, moris

custom, habit

 

(English uses this word only in the plural, mores, as in “the mores of the American people”.)

movere, motus

to move

 

(move)

multus

much, many

 

(multiply)

mundus

world, universe

 

(mundane)

 

 

murex, muricis

shell-fish

[image]

naevus

mole, birthmark

 

(a naevus is a birthmark)

nasci, natus

to be born

 

(natal)

nativitas, nativitatis

birth

 

(nativity)

nauta

sailor

 

(nautical)

navis

ship

 

(naval)

ne

that…not, lest

 

(ne plus ultra – the highest point or most intense degree of a quality)

nebula

mist, cloud

 

(nebula)

[image]

nec…nec

neither…nor

 

(nec huc nec illuc – neither here nor there) 

nervus

 

cord, sinew

 

(nerve)

nexus

binding

 

(nexus)

niger, nigra, nigrum

black, dark

 

(nigrescent)

nimbus

storm, cloud

(nimbus)

[image]

nomen, nominis

name

 

(nominate)

non

not

 

(nonsense)

 

(non sequitur – it does not follow)

nonus

ninth

 

(nonagenarian)

noster, nostra, nostrum

our

 

(a nostrum is “our own” recipe for a medicine…usually a useless or even dangerous medicine.)

novem

nine

 

(November)

novus

new

 

(novel)

nox, noctis

night

 

(nocturnal)

noxa

harm

 

(noxious)

nucleus

kernel of a nut

 

(nucleus)

nullus

no, none, not any

 

(nullify)

nunc

now

 

(nunc pro tunc – “now for then”…if more money is found than the person’s will indicated, it is considered the same as if it were mentioned in the original will.)

numerus

number

 

(numeral)

nuntium

message

 

(pronunciation)

ob

in this way, toward, on account of

 

(observe)

obiter

in passing

 

(obiter dictum – a comment made in passing.)

obscurus

dark

 

(obscure)

occidere, occasus

to fall, to set

 

(occasion)

ocellus

little eye

(ocellus – an eye-spot)

[image]

octavus

eighth

 

(octave)

octo

eight

 

(October)

oculus

eye

(oculus – the hole in the dome of the Pantheon – the temple to All the Gods)

[image]

odium

hatred

 

(odious)

officium

duty, service

 

(office)

oleum

oil

 

(petroleum)

omentum

entrails

 

(omentum – the membrane that holds your internal organs in place.)

omnis

every, all

 

(omnivore)

onus, oneris

burden, load

 

(onerous)

operari, operatus

to work

 

(operate)

optimus

best

 

(optimum)

opus, operis

work, labor

 

(opera)

ordo, ordinis

order, series

 

(order, ordinary)

oriri, ortus

to rise

 

(The sun rises in the Orient.)

os, oris

mouth

 

(oral)

os, ossis

bone

 

(ossify)

otium

leisure

 

(negotiate)

ovis

sheep

(ovine)

[image]

ovum

egg

 

[image]

(ovary)

paene

almost

 

(peninsula)

paenitere

to be sorry

 

(penitent)

par

equal

 

(par)

parens, parentis

parent

 

(parent)

parere, partum

to give birth

 

(parturition)

 

(postpartum depression)

parvus

small

 

(parvovirus)

pater, patris

father

 

(paternal)

pati, passus

to suffer, to endure

 

(patient, passion)

patina

shallow dish

 

(patina)

patria

fatherland

 

(patriot)

pauci, paucae, pauca

few

 

(paucity)

pax, pacis

peace

 

(pacific)

peccare, peccatum

to sin

 

(peccavi – a confession of sin)

pectoralis

pertaining to the chest

 

(pectoral)

pectus, pectoris

breast(-bone)

 

(pectoral)

pecunia

money

 

(pecuniary)

pejor

worse

 

(pejorative)

pendere, pensus

to hang, to weigh

 

(depend, pension)

[image]

penna

feather, wing

 

(pennate)

per

through, by

 

(per)

(per capita, per annum, per diem)

per-

through, to the bad

 

(territus – frightened

perterritus – terrified

i.e., frightened all the way through)

persona

character, mask

 

(person)

pes, pedis

foot

 

(pedal)

pessimus

worst, very bad

 

(pessimist)

petere, petitus

to seek

 

(petition)

pharynx, pharyngis

throat

 

(pharyngeal)

piscis

fish

 

(Pisces)

[image]

pius

tender, pious, loyal

 

(pious)

plaudere, plausus

to clap hands

 

(applaud)

plenus

full

 

(plenty)

plicare, plicatus 

(-plicitus)

to fold

 

(explicit)

plumbum

lead (the metal)

 

(plumber)

 

plus, pluris

more

 

(plus, plural)

poena

punishment

 

(penalty)

poeta

poet

 

(poet)

poeticus

poetic

 

(poetic)

ponere, positus

to put, to place

 

(postpone, position)

pontifex, pontificis

priest

(lit., ‘bridge-builder’…this term was used for pagan priests in Rome and then taken over by the Christian Church…thus, the pope is also called the “pontiff”.)

populus

people

 

(population)

porcus

pig

 

(pork)

portare, portatus

to carry

 

(portable)

possum, posse

can, be able

 

(posse {the group of people in Western movies who have the power to go after the bad guys.})

post

after

 

(post-game)

posterior

further behind

 

(posterior)

potio, potionis

drink

 

(potion)

prae

before, in front

 

(prepare)

prehendere, prehensus

to seize

 

(comprehend)

premere, pressus

to press

 

(press)

pretium

value, worth

 

(precious)

primus

first

 

(prime)

pro

forward

 

(propel)

pubes, pubis

body hair

 

(puberty)

publicus

public

 

(public)

pudendum

that to be ashamed of

 

(pudenda – external genital organs)

pudere, puditum

to be ashamed

 

(pudency {modesty})

pugna

fight

 

(pugnacious)

pulpitum

platform

 

(pulpit)

pungere, punctus

to prick, puncture

 

(puncture)

purgare, purgatus

to purify

 

(purge)

purpureus

purple

 

(purple)

putare, putatus

to think

 

(computer)

pyxidium

little box

[image]

(pyxis – a Roman jewelry box)

pyxis, pyxidis

box

 

(pyxis)

quaerere, quaesitus

(-quirere, -quisitus)

to seek

 

(query)

qualis

what kind

 

(quality)

quantus

how much, how many

 

(quantity)

quartus

fourth

 

(quart)

quater

four times

 

(quarter)

quattuor

four

 

(quart)

quercus

oak

 

(quercus – the scientific name for an oak.)

qui, quae, quod

who, which

 

(quid pro quo – something for something.)

quietus

quiet

 

(quiet)

quinque

five

 

(quintuplets)

quintus

fifth

 

(Quintus – a common name for a Roman man)

quis, quid

who?  what?

 

quo
where
racemus

bunch of grapes, cluster

(raceme – in botany, a definition of how flowers are arranged on their stalks.)

[image]

radius

ray, staff

 

(radial)

radix, radicis

root

 

(radish)

ramosus

branchy

 

(ramose – having many branches)

ramus

branch

 

(ramose)

[image]

rapere, raptus

(-reptus)

to snatch

 

(raptor)

rarus

rare

 

(rare)

rasus

smoothed, blank

 

(erase)

 

(tabula rasa – a blank slate)

re-

back, again

 

(return)

rectus

straight, right

 

(rectangle)

regius

royal

 

(regal)

remedium

remedy

 

(remedy)

res, rei

thing, matter

 

(re – in your e-mail, this word refers to the subject matter the sender wants you to consider.)

 

 

rete, retis

net

 

(retina)

retro

backward

 

(retro)

reus

accused, guilty

 

(mens rea – a guilty mind.)

rex, regis

king

 

(regent)

rhomboideus

similar to a rhombus

(rhomboid)

 

[image]

rhombus

parallelogram

 

(rhombus)

[image]

rhonchus

snoring

 

(rhoncus – another word for snoring.)

 

 

rigor

stiffness

 

(rigorous)

ripa

river bank

 

(riparian)

 

(Your post-prandial riparian constitutional is the walk you take along the river after lunch.)

rodere

to gnaw

 

(rodent)

rostrum

ship’s beak, prow

speaker’s platform

 

(rostrum)

[image]

ruber, rubra

red

 

(ruby)

rufus

red, ruddy

(rufous)

[image] 

Rufous hummingbird

ruga

wrinkle

 

(ruga – in anatomy, a wrinkle or fold)

rumen, ruminis

gullet, throat

(ruminant)

[image]

A ruminant ruminating,

rumpere, ruptus

to break

 

(rupture)

sacer, sacra

sacred

 

(sacred)

saeculum

age, world, generation

 

(secular)

saeptum

fence, wall

 

(septum)

sal, salis

salt

 

(salary)

salus, salutis

health, welfare

 

(salute)

sanctus

holy

 

(sanctify)

sanguis, sanguinis

blood

 

(sanguinary)

sanus

healthy, sound

 

(sane)

sapiens, sapientis

wise, knowing

 

(Homo sapiens)

satis (sat)

enough

 

(satisfy)

scalprum

knife, chisel

 

(scalpel)

scandere, scansum

(-scendere, -scensum)

to climb

 

(ascend)

scapula

shoulder-blade

(scapula)

[image]

scire, scitum

to know

 

(science)

scribere, scriptus

to write

 

(scribble, script)

se

himself, herself, itself

(reflexive…se amat – he loves himself.)

se-

apart, without

 

(secede)

secare, sectum

to cut

 

(secant, section)

secundus

second

 

(second)

sedere, sessus

to sit

 

(session)

semel

once

(just one time)

semen, seminis

seed

 

(seminal)

semi

half

 

(semi-conscious)

semper

always

[image]

Thus always to tyrants.

senior

older

 

 (senior)

senex (senis)

old

 

(senile)

septem

seven

 

(September)

septimus

seventh

 

(September)

sequi, secutus

to follow

 

(sequence, consecutive)

serpere

to creep

 

(serpent)

serratus

toothed like a saw

 

(serrated)

serum

fluid

 

(serum)

sesqui

one and a half

 

(sesquicentennial)

sex

six

 

(sextet)

[image]

sextus

sixth

 

(sexpartite)

sidus, sideris

star

 

(sidereal)

sigillum

seal, stamp

(sigil)

[image]

The Great Seal of the United States

similis

like, similar 

 

(similar)

simplicitas, simplicitatis

simplicity

 

(simplicity)

sinister, sinistra

left

[image]

(sinister)

situs

place

 

(site)

socius

companion, ally

 

(social)

sol, solis

sun

 

(solar)

solvere, solutus

to loosen

 

(solve, solution)

solidus

dense, solid

 

(solid)

solum

ground, soil

 

(soil)

solus

alone, single

 

(sole)

somnus

sleep

 

(insomnia)

soror, sororis

sister

 

(sorority)

sopor

deep sleep

 

(soporific)

[image]

spatium

distance

 

(spatial)

spectare, spectatus

to look at

 

(spectator)

spectrum

image

(spectrum)

[image]

speculum

mirror

(speculum)

[image]

Mirror for the Hubble space telescope

sperare, speratus

to hope for

 

(dum spiro, spero – while I breathe, I hope…Cicero ~ and the motto of South Carolina)

spirare, spiratus

to breathe

 

(inspire)

stare, status

to stand

 

(state)

statuere, statutus

to put

 

(statue)

stella

star

 

(stellar)

stimulus

whip, goad

 

(stimulate)

stratum

covering

 

(stratosphere)

stratus

spread out

(stratus)

[image]

 

sub

under

 

(submarine)

sumere, sumptus

to take

 

(consume)

super

above, over

 

(supervise)

superior

higher

 

(superior)

supra

above

 

(supraliminal)

supremus

highest

 

(supreme)

suus, sua, suum

one’s own

 

(sui generis – of one’s own kind)

tabula

table, list

 

(tablet)

talio, talionis

retaliation

 

(retaliate)

tangere, tactus

(-tinere)

to touch

 

(tangent, tactile)

taurus

bull

 

(Taurus)

[image]

tecum (cum te)
with you
tempestas, tempestatis

storm

 

(tempest)

tempus, temporis

time

 

(temporary)

tendere, tentus 

(tensus)

to stretch

 

(extend)

tenere, tentus 

(-tinere)

to hold

 

(tentacle)

tenuis

thin

 

(tenuous)

ter

three times

 

(Tertiary)

teres

rounded

 

(teres – in medicine, a round ligament)

tergum

back

(part of the body)

 

(tergum – a segment of a lobster’s shell on its back)

terminus

boundary, end

 

(terminal)

terra

earth, land, ground

 

(terrestrial)

tertius

third

 

(tertiary)

testis

witness

 

(testify)

thallus

green sprout

 

(thallus – in botany, a simple vegetative body)

theca

case, cover

 

(theca – in botany, a sac or cell)

thyrsus

stalk of a plant

[image]

A worshiper of Dionysus, carrying a thyrsus

tibia

shin-bone

 

(tibia)

toga

toga, outer gown

(toga)

[image]

 

tolerare, toleratus

endure

 

(tolerate)

tonsor, tonsoris

barber

 

(tonsorial)

torquere, tortus

to twist

 

(torque)

trahere, tractus

to drag, to draw

 

(tractor)

tranquilitas, tranquilitatis

calmness

 

(tranquility)

trans

through, across

 

(transfer)

trapezium

little table

 

(trapezoid)

[image]

 

tres, tria

three

 

(trio)

trudere, trusus

to push, to shove, to thrust

 

(intrude)

tunc

then

 

(nunc pro tunc – now for then)

turba

crowd, uproar

 

(turbulent)

ulterior

farther

 

(ulterior)

ultimus

farthest

 

(ultimate)

ultra

beyond

 

(ultramarine)

umbra

shade

 

(umbrella)

unda

wave

 

(undulate)

urbs, urbis

city

 

(urban)

ursus

bear

 

(Ursa Major and Ursa Minor)

uterus

womb

 

(uterus)

uxor

wife

 

(uxorial)

vacca

cow

 

(vaccinate)

vacuum

empty (thing)

 

(vacuum)

vadere, vasum

to go

 

(invade)

valere, valitum

to be strong, to be well

 

(valedictorian)

velamen, velaminis

covering, veil

 

(velamen – in anatomy, a membranous covering)

venire, ventum

to come

 

(convene, convention)

venter, ventris

belly

(ventral)

[image]

venum

sale

 

(venal)

venus, veneris

love, beauty

 

(Venus, venereal)

ver, veris

springtime

 

(Vernal equinox)

verbatim

word for word

(an adverb)

 

(verbatim)

verbum

word

 

(verb)

veritas, veritatis

truth

 

(verity)

vertebra

joint

 

(vertebrate)

vertere, versus

to turn

 

(revert, verse)

vertex, verticis

whirlpool, summit

 

(vertex)

verus

true

 

(very)

vestis

garment

 

(vest)

vetare

to forbid

 

(Veto!  I forbid it!)

via

way, road

 

(via)

videre, visus

to see

 

(video, vision)

vindex, vindicis

claimant

 

(vindicate)

vincere, victus

to conquer

 

(convince, victory)

vinum

wine

 

(vine)

vipera

snake

 

(viper)

vir, viri

man

(as opposed to woman)

 

(virile)

virgo, virginis

maiden

 

(virgin)

viridis

green

 

(viridian – a greenish-blue pigment)

virilis

manly

 

(virility)

vis

(pl. vires)

force, power

 

(vis – another word for force or power in English)

vita

life

 

(vital)

vitium

flaw, defect

 

(vitiate)

vivus

living, alive

 

(vivid)

voluptas, voluptatis

pleasure

 

(voluptuous)

volvere, volutus

to roll

 

(Volvo, revolve, revolution)

vorare, voratus

to eat

 

(voracious, omnivore)

vortex, vorticis

(cf. vertex)

whirlpool, top of the head, summit

 

(vortex)

vox, vocis

voice

 

(vocal)

vulpes

fox

(vulpine)

[image]

 

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