Greek Art and Archaeology term 1

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Knossos location
site inland but not terribly far from the sea
Mount Ida
cave sanctuaries
very mountainous and plains – grow grain and agriculture
“Minoan” culture
named after king Minos of Knossos, began to flourish around 3000 BCE
very large storage vessels; used to store grain or food
Burials in Crete
mainly cist graves; pit lined with stone and covered with stone on top
Myrtos Goddess vessel
found near bench or alter within the complex. Could also be a representation of a woman with a jug giving an offering. Vessel meant to contain liquid.
Minoan gold bee pendent
Minoans became quite skilled at metal. The pendent wad found in a funerary context
large storage vessel. burials introduced at the end of this period. Aka stuff body in jar and place in ground.
Old palace period
1900-1650 BCE
New palace period
1650-1450 BCE
Creto- Mycenaean period
1450-1100 BCE
this is what separates the “old palace period” from the “new palace period”
• Massive earthquake on the island 1700 BCE that destroyed the palaces at phaistos and Knossos. Another volcanic event destroyed another palace
Multipurpose nature of “palace” buildings were:
political, social and religious centres. Microcosm of life and culture. All contained in the architectural package
Sir Arthur Evans
• Archeologist and excavator of Knossos, a major Minoan centre
• Considered the discoverer of Minoan civilization. Coined the name Minoan after King Minos
• Fair bit of experience in excavation and went to oxford. He was keeper of one of the first archeological centres.
• Identified Linear A and Linear B writing
o Linear A is a hyroglyphic. Linear A is not yet desciphered
o Linear B is essentially Greek writing andthe precursor to Greek writing. Linear B demonstrates used for accounted records. Linear B desciphered to the fullest.
• His discoveries seemed to show the Mycenaean culture to be inferior to Minoan. Minoans were put on the same status as the Egyptians.
Old palace period
• Factors influencing palace development:
o Increased wealth through trade with near east
o Political and social changes (but difficult to pinpoint)
o Power shifts from smaller centres to large regional ones. Knossos dominated the region in which it resided. Knossos May have at one point dominated the whole island.
o No kings per se. Knossos could have dominated the whole island
Phaistos – old palace period
• Construction began c. 2000 BCE
• Located in the vicinity of Mount Ida
o Important cave sanctuary of Kamares
• First palace destroyed by earthquake c. 1700 BCE, but western part is still visible
• Adjacent rooms joined by small corridors – spaces used for storage and another place used for shrine space. Found tablets with writing in a room similar to an archive.
• Courtyard area – trapezoidal area and would have been the major entrance to the complex
• Theatre space near the courtyard. Many believed that this area was ritualistic. And economic ones as well.
General palace construction
• Construction materials (found in other created palaces too):
o Rubble stone or sundried brick walls lined with stone slabs that were stuccoed or plastered
o Wood columns
o Small rectangular spaces with steps (lustration basins) and smaller courtyards, as well as windows designed to let in air and light (light wells)
o Paved stone causeways
o Earthenware for drainage
o No fortification walls
Phaistos disc
o Found in what is beleived to be a archive in the palace
o Two sided circular clay tablet with stamped symbols in a spiral pattern
o Not deciphered
o May have been used in religious context
o Kamares wear was found at phaistos and in the cave; religious link; style influenced by old palace period I.e bold colours painted on a black backdrop
o So colled after the Kamares cave near phaistos ( caves were often sanctuaries)
o Floral and fauna was in ceramics and artwork – artwork and painting was very elaborate.
o Pottery found in Egypt – they were trading with the Egyptians
Knossos palace
• Mentioned by homer as the great city of King Minos
• Site occupied since early Bronze Age;
• First palace built on the ruins of an older settlement
• Largest of the palace complexes on Crete
• First palace destroyed by earthquake fire 1700/ BCE
Shared features of Knossos and phaistos
• Large west court, which contains large triangular causeways
• Court also contains large pits called koulouras ( for grain offerings? Tree planters?) may have been used for distributing grain for the masses
• Stepped theatre area
• Note that focus of architecture is on gathering places
o Alters along the west side and frescos
Heinrich Schliemann

• German businessman and archaeologist; • considered to be one of the pioneers of modern archaeology; • believed that Homer’s Iliad reflected actual historical events and used it to “find” key archaeological sites such as Troy and Mycenae.

Ancient Literary Sources on Greek Art and Architecture
• rarely do written sources commenting on Greek art survive antiquity, but there are a few important ones: –Strabo (c. 64/63 BCE – 24 CE) – Greek geographer and historian; –Vitruvius (c. 80 BCE – 15 CE) – Roman architect and civil engineer; –Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 CE) – Roman naturalist and philosopher –Pausanias (110 – 180 CE) – Greek geographer
What is “art history”?
• definition assumes a dichotomy within the study of art: – art as history; – art as a study of forms.
• art historians rely on a variety of analytical approaches including semiotics, iconology, and psychoanalysis (to name a few).

• 18th century German art historian and archaeologist; • considered the “father of art history”; • first made the distinction between Greek, Greco- Roman and Roman art; • first to apply categories of style to the study of art.

Material remains vs. art
• What constitutes material remains? – man-made objects such as pottery, stone tools, clothing, statues, buildings, etc. – Problem: not all material remains are considered “art”.
What can we learn from material culture?
• Daily Life
Remains of houses on the Greek island of Delos.
Cooking stove, pots and tools from Delos.

• Economy: –agriculture; –industry; –trade.
Greek Shipping/Storage Amphora Museum of Antiquities, University of Saskatchewan
Coin Hoard

• Technology and Engineering
Propylaea in Athens (entrance to the Acropolis and Parthenon)
Antikythera Mechanism (ancient Greek analog computer), c. 150-100 BCE

• Death and funerary practices
Mycenaean Tholos Tomb (aka Tomb of Agamemnon), c. 1250 BCE
Funerary stele to a young Greek soldier Aristonautes, c. 350-325 BCE

Bronze Age
3000 to 1100 BCE – further broken down according to Cretan/Minoan, Cycladic, and Mainland Greek cultures
Dark Ages
1100 to 900 BCE
Geometric Period
900 to 700 BCE
Orientalizing Period
700 to 600 BCE
Archaic Period
600 to 480 BCE
Transitional Period
480 to 45o BCE
Classical Period
450 to 323 BCE
Hellenistic Period
323 to 31 BCE
• comes from the Greek ??????????? (archaios = old, ancient + logos = story, word); • the scientific study of material remains (including fossil relics, artefacts, monuments) of past human life and activities; • remains of the culture of a people; • material remains = non-literary evidence
Greek archaeology
• what is literary evidence? –written sources from antiquity, some famous Greek examples: • Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey • Herodotus, The Histories • Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War • playwrights like Euripides and Aristophanes • inscriptions and papyri
• but, what are the issues concerning literary evidence and archaeology? – both literary and non-literary evidence important when studying ancient Greece, but when used together one must exercise caution. –cannot necessarily use one as a check against the other, i.e. archaeological evidence used to “confirm” literary sources or literary sources used to interpret archaeological evidence; –Heinrich Schliemann and Troy
o The scientific study of material remains of past human life and human activities
o Remains of the culture of a people
o Material remains = non-literary evidence
literary evidence
o Homer, the lilad and the odyssey
o Herodotus, the histories (father of history, he wrote down what he had seen in his travels)
o Thucydides, the peloponnesian war
o Playwrights like Euripides and Aristophanes
o Inscriptions and papyri
Heinrich Schliemann
• German businessman and archaeologist;
• Considered to be one of the pioneers of modern archaeology
• Believed that Homers Iliad reflected actual historical events and used it to find key archaeological sites such as Troy and Mycenae.
o Homer described Troy as being a wealthy city and an ideal place.
• Greeks wanted to invade Troy because of Helen. Layer siege to Troy for 10 years.
Ancient Literacy Sources on Greek Art and Architecture
• Rarely do written source comment on Greek art survive antiquity. Few important ones:
o Strabo – Greek geographer and historian
o Vitruvius – roman architecture and civil engineer; the importance of temples and the ways in which they are designed
o Pliny the Elder – wrote natural history and commentator on terracotta and Greek sculpture. As a result of this it allowed historians to understand the roman copycat works of the Greeks
o Pausanias – travelled and wrote about what he saw. Greek geographer.

·         Doric dialect was in the west brown 

·         Aeolic dialect was yellow. 

·         Arcadian beige 

·         Attic is magenta 

·         Ionic is light blue 


·         Greece was not a country as we know a country to be today. What defined Greece was the language in which they spoke. Separate city states with different types of government. Polis means city state. Athens is famous for being a democracy but at first it was not. Sparta was an oligarchy. 

Early Minoan
Middle Minoan
Late Minoan
Early Cycladic
Middle Cycladic
Late Cycladic
Early Helladic
Middle Helladic
Late Helladic
Early Cycladic
3000-2000 BCE
Middle Cycladic
2000-1550 BCE
Late Cycladic
1550-1100 BCE
Cycladic Culture
• islands occupied as early as sixth millennium BCE; • inhabitants likely came from Anatolia and mainland Greece; • gained wealth through agriculture, metal and mineral resources, as well as fishing; • traded with Minoan Crete, Helladic Greece and Asia Minor.
• much of the material that the Cycladic culture is famous for comes from the Early Cycladic period, which can be broken down into three further phases: – Early Cycladic I (3200-2800 BCE) • material comes exclusively from cemeteries; settlement remains scarce; – Early Cycladic II (2800-2300 BCE) • considered the height of Cycladic culture, with increase in settlements, increase in trade; – Early Cycladic III (2300-2000 BCE) • decline in number of habitation sites with remaining ones being fortified.
Early Cycladic I (3200-2800 BCE) – burials
• evidence derived mainly from burials – cist graves • presence of grave goods suggests a belief in the afterlife – numbers and types of grave goods seem to indicate levels of wealth.
Early Cycladic I (3200-2800 BCE) – grave goods
• marble vessels – such vessels mimic shapes also found in ceramic examples
• marble vessels – some vessels also take on zoomorphic shapes
• clay vessels – this type of pyxis is quite common in ECI burials
• marble figurines – found in a number of graves – may represent fertility
Early Cycladic II (2800-2300 BCE) – burials
• characterized by more cemeteries and thus more burials = increased population; • cist graves remained in use, but altered to accommodate multiple burials; – corbelled cist graves found at Chalandriani on Syros • increased wealth apparent in some burials, which contained weapons, jewelry, cosmetic items, marble vessels and figures and pottery.
Early Cycladic II (2800-2300 BCE) – grave goods
• weapons – quite rare but indicative of development of metal working – it is during this time that metal weapons first make an appearance
• Pottery/ceramics – so-called “frying pans” more so for their shape and not their use – these vessels appear both in graves and in settlements – incised and impressed decoration – possible uses include ritual offerings/libations to the dead, plates for food, musical instruments (drums), cosmetic vessels.
• figurines – many in marble, but others in ceramic and lead – both male and female, but female most common – often associated with fertility
Early Cycladic III (2300-2000 BCE) – burials
• many cemeteries abandoned = decreased population; – may also indicate movement of populations to urban coastal centers • information limited, since only a few cemeteries have been excavated; • cist graves continued to be used, but rock cut tomb also emerged.
Early Cycladic III (2300-2o00 BCE) – grave goods
• Pottery/ceramics – more ceramics present in burials than other artifacts – a kernos was common among funerary vessels; likely used for offerings of seeds, fruit or liquid.
• Pottery/ceramics – Note stripe and chevron decoration most common.
Cycladic Figurines (“Idols”)
• these marble figurines are the most famous examples of Cycladic art; • they have a surprisingly modern simplistic style; • both male and female figurines; • range in size from miniature to life size; • purpose is uncertain and widely debated among scholars.
Archaic Cycladic Figurines
– Violin type
Violin-shaped figurine, marble, c. 3200-2800 BCE
• shape is an extension of Neolithic figurines; • breasts are not defined, but the so-called “pubic triangle” is clearly presented, making this figure female; • What do you think the horizontal lines across the abdomen represent? – interpreted as postpartum marks
Classical Cycladic Figurines
• marks the rise of the Keros- Syros culture; • high point or “canon” of Cycladic art; • canonical features include: – folded arms above the abdomen – slightly bent knees – head tilted slightly back – feet gently pointed downwards – painted surfaces
• five different varieties of the canonical type: – Kapsala – Early Spedos – Late Spedos – Dokathismata – Chalandriani
Classical Cycladic Figurines – Kapsala type
• Key features: – right arm folded below left – rounded, naturalistic proportions – generally slim appearance
Classical Cycladic Figurines – Spedos type
• Key features: – similar to Kapsala, but with more defined details through greater use of surface incision – most prolific variety of the Classical phase – Early and Late sub- categories with Late having more lyre-shaped heads
Classical Cycladic Figurines – Dokathismata type
• Key features: – very geometric, leaning more toward two-dimensionality – very flat with exaggerated proportions; wide shoulders tapering down to narrow legs and feet – general triangular shape
Classical Cycladic Figurines – Chalandriani type
• Key features: – considered ‘post-canonical’ – changes in folded arm motif – Other non-canonical features include grooved abdomen (not in this example) and dotted pubic triangle – small and flat in profile with a squat appearance – loss of the harmonious symmetry of previous types
Function and Meaning of Cycladic Figurines
• difficult to determine due to lack of context; • generally found in burials, but sometimes in settlements too; • male figures often seen in more of an action role as hunters or musicians; • female figures more difficult to interpret.
• What do the many female figures represent? – fertility goddesses? – mother goddesses? – nymphs? – mourners? – representations of the deceased? – servants of the deceased• funerary vs. settlement context: – funerary = mourners, mother goddess, representations of the deceased – settlement = cult figures used in rituals and/or as offerings, females at the age of marriage, household gods, toys/dolls
What do you think the function and meaning of these Cycladic figures were?
• Is there one overall meaning and purpose for these objects? – Simple answer is no. – Why? – given the number of figures and the fact that they were made of marble and were found in different contexts means that they served multiple purposes.
Early Crete
• island occupied by 6000 BCE; • developed similarly to the Cyclades with inhabitants likely coming from Anatolia; • gained wealth through agriculture (grain farming and stock raising), as well as through trade; • “Minoan” culture, named after King Minos of Knossos, began to flourish around 3000 BCE.
Early Minoan Crete
3000-2000 BCE

• evidence of large scale buildings and rich burials indicate increased social stratification and kinship groups by middle of third millennium BCE; • the site of Myrtos shows architecture that foreshadows the later palaces, such as Knossos and Phaistos.
• evidence from Myrtos shows important connection to female figure in daily/religious life; • ‘Goddess’ vessel found near bench (altar?) within the complex; • any similarities between this figure and those found on the Cyclades?

Early Minoan Crete (3000-2000 BCE) – technology
• derived much of their technology from Cyclades and Egypt in metal and stone-working; • various ceramic styles, but Vasilike ware most common.
• Minoans become quite skilled at metal-working; • believed to have gained these skills through Near Eastern contacts.
Early Minoan Crete (3000-2000 BCE) – burial practices
• different regional styles and traditions: – rectangular or square built tombs with one or more rooms (north and east Crete) – tholos tombs (south-central Crete) – pithoi (large storage vessel) burials introduced at the end of this period • some rich graves containing jewelry, votive double axes, seal stones, silver cups, weapons, pottery, and stone wares.
Middle Minoan Crete (c. 2000-1450 BCE) – the “Palace” periods
• term ‘palace’ used for the major complexes at centers such as Knossos and Phaistos; • scholars often use ‘palace’ period chronology: –Old Palace Period (1900-1650 BCE) –New Palace Period (1650-1450 BCE) –Creto-Mycenaean Period (1450-1100 BCE) • best known palace structures: Phaistos and Knossos among others
Sir Arthur Evans

• archaeologist and excavator of Knossos, a major Minoan center; • considered the discoverer of Minoan civilization; • identified Linear A and Linear B writing; • his discoveries seemed to show the Mycenaean culture to be inferior to Minoan.

Palace Development – Old Palace Period
• factors influencing palace development: –increased wealth through trade with Near East –political and social changes (but difficult to pinpoint) –power shifts from smaller centers to larger regional ones –no kings per se, but possible that Knossos may have ruled all Crete at one point
Phaistos – Old Palace Period
• construction began c. 2000 BCE; • located in the vicinity of Mount Ida – important cave sanctuary of Kamares; • first palace destroyed by earthquake c. 1700 BCE, but western part of original structure still visible.
General Palace Construction
• construction materials (found in other Cretan palaces too): – rubble stone or sun-dried brick walls lined with stone slabs that were stuccoed or plastered – wood columns; – small rectangular spaces with steps (lustral basins) and smaller courtyards, as well as windows designed to let in air and light (light wells); – paved (stones) causeways; – earthenware pipes for drainage; – no fortification walls.
Phaistos – material remains
• Phaistos disc: – found in what is believed to be an archive in the palace – two-sided circular clay tablet with stamped symbols in a spiral pattern – not deciphered – may have been used in religious context
• Pottery: – Kamares ware found at Phaistos – so-called after the Kamares Cave near Phaistos (caves were often used as sanctuaries) – this style of pottery characteristic of Old Palace period
Knossos – Old Palace Period
• mentioned by Homer as the great city of King Minos; • site occupied since early Bronze Age; • first palace built on the ruins of an older settlement; • largest of the palace complexes on Crete; • first palace destroyed by earthquake/fire c. 1700 BCE.
Old Palace Period – shared features of Knossos and Phaistos
• large west court, which contains large triangular causeways; • court also contains large pits called koulouras (for grain offerings? Tree planters?); • stepped theatre area; • note that focus of architecture is on gathering places.
Old Palace Period – shared features of Knossos and Phaistos
• large west court, which contains large triangular causeways; • court also contains large circular pits called koulourai (for grain offerings? Tree planters?); • stepped theatre area; • note that focus of architecture is on gathering places.
New Palace Period (1650-1450 BCE)
• prompted by the destruction of the old palaces by earthquake c. 1700 BCE; • new palaces built on a much grander scale at Phaistos, Knossos and other sites; • no fortifications; • time of peace and prosperity.
Knossos (New Palace Period) – ‘Priest King’ Fresco
• one of the frescos heavily reconstructed by Evans from fragments; • pieces came from three different figures leading to multiple interpretations; • male or female?
Minoan Religion – snake goddess figurine
• found in one of the temple repositories at Knossos; • shows Minoan female fashion; • mother or earth goddess; • commanding presence means she is dominant deity and the focus of worship amongst the Minoans.
Palace Periods (2000-1450 BCE) – functions of ‘palace’ complexes
• important regional administrative centers; • sites of public gatherings; • sites of religious gatherings; religious expression incorporated into the architecture and decoration; • centers of commercial exchange.
Rise of the Mycenaeans – Creto-Mycenaean Period (1450-1100 BCE)
• interactions between Minoans and mainland Greeks since 2000 BCE (trade); • Mycenaeans (Greeks) modelled their state/culture on that of the Minoans; • Mycenaean culture began to flourish in the late Helladic period (c. 1550 BCE); • unlike the Minoans, the Mycenaean culture was dominated by a warrior aristocracy; • c. 1450 BCE the Mycenaeans invade Crete and occupy its palaces.
Knossos in the Creto-Mycenaean Period (1450-1100 BCE)
• Mycenaeans occupied the palace at Knossos and modified it to some degree; • also produced pottery unique to this time period.
Minoan Palace Periods – a quick summary
• palace structures at Knossos and Phaistos (and others); – Knossos the largest • small city-states with palaces as administrative, religious, and commercial centers; • maritime trade; – Minoans in contact with Near East (Egypt), Asia Minor, and mainland Greece; • Mycenaean rule in 1450 BCE.
Neolithic Greece – Dimini
• flourished c. 3700-3300 BCE; • site important for understanding early steps towards the urbanization of Greece; • also indications of social stratification as seen through architecture.
• material remains from Dimini included both decorated and undecorated pottery, figurines, and jewelry, as well as tools
Mycenaean Culture in the Late Helladic Period (1550-1100 BCE) – burials
• shaft graves (deep rectangular pits) found at Mycenae by Schliemann; • two sets of this type of grave: – Grave Circle A (16th century BCE) – Grave Circle B (17th-16th centuries BCE) • graves belonged to Mycenae’s ruling warrior class.
Burials at Mycenae – Grave Circle A
• built/used during 16th century BCE; • contained six burials; • extremely rich grave goods.
• limestone stele with charioteer from Grave 5
• graves included hundreds of luxury items, including the so-called (by Schliemann) ‘Mask of Agamemnon’, and bronze and gold ‘Lion Hunt’ dagger.
• numerous gold diadems and other pieces of jewelry; • impressive silver and gold bull’s head rhyton (drinking vessel).
Burials at Mycenae – the ‘Treasury of Atreus’
tholos tomb, c. 1350- 1250 BCE
• entrance facade richly decorated – engaged columns in red and green marble, carved with Minoan chevron and spiral motifs
Burials at Mycenae – summary
• grave circles and tholos tombs are the burial sites of the ruling class, who controlled the power and resources of the kingdom; • such Mycenaean tholos tombs found in many parts of Greece; • note Minoan influence.
Mycenae Fortifications – ‘Cyclopean’ masonry
• made with rough hewn blocks of limestone so large only the giant Cyclopes could have built them (belief even in antiquity); • wall generally 6 meters thick reaching to a maximum height of 8 meters; • no mortar required.
Mycenae Fortifications – Lion Gate
• the ‘Lion Gate’ made during second building phase, c. 1250; • corresponds to the enclosure of Grave Circle A within the city walls.
Mycenae – Warrior Krater
• c. 12th century BCE; • found in a house on the citadel at Mycenae; • testament to the warrior culture of the Mycenaeans.
The Palace at Pylos – aka ‘Palace of Nestor’
• first structures built date to c. 1300 BCE; • destruction c. 1230-1200 BCE; • building techniques similar to Minoan; – interior walls made of timber and rubble core covered in plaster; – exterior walls made of ashlar limestone blocks; – mud bricks used for upper story walls.
Palace at Pylos – Linear B tablets
• Linear B tablets give us some indications as to the highly organized bureaucracy of the palace; • title ‘wanax’, meaning king or ruler found on some tablets, as well as the titles of other officials; • significant economic activity – taxation, trade, and redistribution system.
The Fall of the Mycenaeans and the Dawn of the Dark Ages
• c. 1200 BCE all major Mycenaean palace kingdoms destroyed (by ‘sea peoples’?, Dorian invaders?); • changes in burial practices: –collective rather than individual burials; –introduction of cremation (by Dorians?); • obvious changes to architecture and art; • introduction of iron working (beginning of the Iron Age).
The Age of Iron
• Iron Age and iron-working in Greece begins c. 1100 BCE; • iron was smelted and worked with a hammer as opposed to casting (as with bronze); • advantage: iron much more common than bronze.
Early Iron Age Architecture – house at Nichoria (10th century BCE)
• Nichoria is located in south-west Peloponnese; • apsidal construction, rectangular in shape; • built of mud brick on a stone foundation; thatched roof supported by timber frame.
Early Iron Age Architecture – Lefkandi, Euboea (10th century BCE)
• Toumba building perhaps most impressive discovery; • made of dressed stone and mud brick; • seems to have an outer colonnade to support the roof; • unfinished building with rich burials beneath the floor.
• function of the Toumba: – house? – feasting hall? – temple or hero shrine? – combination? – likely belonged to a dynastic family
Early Temples in the Geometric Period
• note that there had been no temples in the Bronze Age; • during early Iron Age worship of gods moved to indoor structures, which held the cult images; • resemble house huts.
Sub-Mycenaean Pottery c. 1100-1000 BCE
• with the fall of the Mycenaeans we also see a decline in craftsmanship; • crude, simplified versions of former Mycenaean and Minoan designs; • we see this also in metal- working (despite Iron Age beginnings)
Protogeometric Period in Greece c. 1000-900 BCE
• despite being in the ‘Dark Ages’, there is an obvious refinement and advancement in pottery technology in terms of both fabric and design; • characterized by simple geometric and curvilinear designs; • shapes generally derive from Mycenaean.
Protogeometric Pottery in Greece – archaeological context
• almost all of the pottery that has survived from this period comes from graves; • noteworthy finds come from Kerameikos cemetery in Athens; • yet these vessels likely used in day to day life; • vessels also found in sanctuaries as votive offerings.
Geometric Period in Greece c. 900-700 BCE
• evidence of increased trade in Greece; • Greek alphabet developed; • Greece begins to colonize (southern Italy and France, North Africa); • Greek cultural revival takes place –time of epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod; • towards the end of this period, we see the rise of the polis (Greek city-state).
• Protogeometric style smoothly evolves into Geometric; • Geometric style is symptomatic of continuous emergance out of the Dark Age; • Athens takes lead in development of style and production of pottery; • can be divided into Early (c. 900-850), Middle (c. 850-750) and Late (c. 750-700) Geometric.
• there is an increase in the number of designs: – Greek meander/key pattern; – swastikas; – checker patterns; – zig zags and cross-hatching (meant to resemble wicker work or weaving?) – triangles.
Geometric Pottery in Greece – Geometric Amphora by Dipylon Painter
• in the Middle Geometric period figures of people and animals emerged, depicted in friezes and panels; • this example was used as a grave marker.
• we also see more detailed action scenes emerge; • note the chariots and soldiers on this funerary krater.

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