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1. sheaf of grain

2. symbol for Demeter

3. Demeter stopped grain production on earth that caused famine cuz she was sad when Persephone was taken to the underworld by Zeus.



2. Kore



1.young maiden or girl.

2. Another name for Persephone since she’s the goddess of youth.

3.Abducted by Hades



4. Aegis



 1.symbol for Athena

2. athenas shield.



5. Athena Polias



 1. she’s patron of the city(polias) Athens

2. won against Poseidon in patron contest by giving an olive tree. This city was a naval power.

3. goddess of wisdom



8. Callisto



1. was a nymph and follower of Artemis.

2. She was a virgin until zeus disguised himself as Artemis herself and tricked her by kissing her and gets her pregnant.

3. Their son is Arcas, she is turned into a bear. Arcas becomes a hunter and tries to kill her mother, Zeus intervnes and sends them to be stars in the sky.



9. Delos



      1. Island in the Aegan sea

2. where Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis.

3.It was the meeting place for the Delian league of Athenians, and housed their treasury here.






1. 3-legged metal cooking vessel that a oracle would sit on

2. associated with Apollos oracle at Delphi

3. used for ritual procedures by Pythian priestess



12. Erechtheum



1. temple on the north side of the acropolis.

2. Located in the Cropylaia gateway entrance.

3.Associated with mythical founding king Erechtheus, ancestor of theseus. He defended city from invasion of Umopus, poseidons son.



13. Omphalos



1. center of the earth” also “navel

2. this is where Zeus released 2 eagles that traveled on opposing routes around the world until they met at one point.

3.A big religious stone located in Delphi.



14. Hermes Argeiphontes



1.  Slayer of Argus, the monster with many eyes that watched over Io and was Killed by Hermes.

2. god of traverlers & thieves

3. great at crossing boundaries



15. Talaria



1. winged sandals

2. symbol for Hermes

3. also given to Perseus to fly to Medusas and the gorgons lair since it was very far.



17. Erechtheus



1. King of Athens

2. ancestor of Theseus, Grandson of Erechthonius

3. He defended city from invasion of Umopus, Poseidon’s son. Father of the girl Ion. These line of family has monstrous snake inside them.



19. Chimera



1. monster in Asia Minor that has heads of a lion, goat, and snake.

2. Killed by Bellerophon a greek hero and monster slayer with the help of Pegasus, a gift from Poseidon which Bellerophon tamed.

3. offspring of Typhoeus



21. Kantharos



1. Dionysus’ cup was always full

2. special Greek cup to drink wine.

3. huge handles that extended to the lip of the top




22. Silenus



1. was the tutor of Dionysus.

2. He was a sileni, they were man and animal hybrids (goat & horse features) and were very brotusck, hairier, and badder.

3. He was very wise, but was always being a drunk and acting crazy. When hes like this he has prophecies.

4. He was involved with King Midas and gave him the power of anything he touches to become gold.

5. He was also a wine maker.



24. Knossos



1. the largest palatial site in the island of Crete, thalassocracy(rule over the sea).

2. Part of the Minoan culture. It had priest and priestesses.

3. The ruler was king Minos, son of Zeus and Europa. It has a labyrinth.



25. Labrys



1.  a minoan Double ax weapon and religious symbol.





27. Treasury of Atreus



1. “tomb of Agamemnon”discovered by Schliemann

2. at Mycenae

3. Atreus was a king of Mycenae



28. Scamander River



1. river in troy that is named after the river god Scamander.

2. Flows from Mt.Ida across the plain beneath the city of Troy.

3. Achaeans set their camp up near its mouth



29. Alcmena



1.  mother of Heracles

2. daughter of the Mycenaen King Electryon.

3. she sleeps with zeus and amphytrion the same night and has twins ( heracles and ethacles)



30. Parerga




1. side labors for Heracles, they were contests for him. Athloi means contests or labors.

2. parerga was when Hera sent the giant crab to help the hydra to kill Heracles.

3. Also freeing Prometheus from his punishment.



33. The Argo



1. Argus built a ship called the Argo with the help of Athena from the oak trees

2. Ship for Jason and the Argonauts

3. To go find and retrieve the Golden Fleece at Colchis (easter edge of Black sea)

4. The Argo also kills Jason



34. Medea



1. “wife” of Jason

2. princess of Colchis. She’s a barbarian and a witch in Jasons eyes.

3. Daughter of King Aeetes. Betrays her own family and leaves Colchis.

4. Also kills King Creon of Corinth and his daughter Glauce in her blood vengeance. Also kills hers and Jasons children.


Euheremus : 

1.attempts to find historical explanations for myths, he studies myths. (gods were once men and wars were very important to them)

2. Zeus being the king of crete.

3. Opposite of methaphorical interpretation

Carl Jung :


the collective conscious and archetypes

traditional expressions of collective dreams, developed over thousands of years, of psychology

symbols that a society depends on…student of freud. .. anima male in female.

Chaos :


void, abyss, gap,  empty space in the world,

disorder, not well understood.

Beginning of everything. 1st primordial deitie ever from which the rest came from

Gaia :


primordial goddess of earth,

1st primordial being,

wife of Uranus.

Mother of cronus.

Eros :

primordial force of love…

Cupid for the Romans.

The god of homosexuality..masculine part of love..

son of ares and aphrodite

Uranus :


primordial god of the sky,

son&husband of gaia..

father of cronus

Titans :


offspring’s of Gaia and Uranus,

primeval forces of nature,

12 powerful giants..methaphors of nature.

.titanomachy war against olympians

Gigantomachy : 


war between giants and zeus.

They were born from gaia and Uranus genitals.

They were defeated and sent just above tartatus.

Triumph of greek civilization. etiological explanation

Ages of Man : 

1. Gold age- everything is perfect

2. Silver age,

3. Bronze age- war

4. Heroes: war but justice and sacrificied for gods age

5. Iron age. Worked ur ass off

Prometheus :


a titan who sided with zeus.

Very intelligent and hes also a trickster.

Created humans out of clay and also gave them many gifts

Deucalion :


son of Prometheus.

Survived Zeus’s flood to exterminate “clense” all mortals.

Repopulates earth with his wife Pyrrha by throwing the bones of the great mother.

Atrahasis :


Babylonian extra-wise man who survives the flood when Enki(water) told him to build a boat.

Equivalent to Deucalion in greek myth.

Fore thinker like Prometheus


Croesus and solon :


“which man is happy?” solon told him how to measure a mans life.Wait until he is dead to measure it. Happiness cannot be judged until after death

Croesus king of Lydia, father of Atys.

Solon was Athenian.

took their mother in a carriage, so tired that they were put to sleep(death) by the gods

Supplication :


praying to the gods for certain needs or help, humbly begging…

1. Pygmalion prayed to aphrdoite to turn the statue galatea into a real woman.

2. Eos begged to zeus for tithanos to be immortal.

3. Thetis begging zeus for achilles to win the trojan war

Moirai ( Fates ) :

Atropos, Clotho, & Lachesis…(ACL)

daughters of zeus & themis.

They personified the destiny/fate of every mortal. Even gods are submitted to their powers.

One spins it, one measures it, one cuts it.

Thales of miletus :


pre-socratic greek philosopher from asia minor who explained natural phenomena without reference to mythology.

Everything started from water. He was a rational guy

Father of science

Oceanid Nymph :


3000 daughters of the titan Oceanus & Tethys that each represented a spring, river, sea, lake, pond, any body of water through out Greece.

metis 1st wife of zeus

Hieros Gamos :

sacred marriage”

a carl jung archetype of structuralism.

Zeus and hera   –      gaia and Uranus

Apotropaic :


some sort of magic to “turn away” evil.



athenas shield

The Muses :


daughters of zeus & mnemosyne 


9 muses which were goddeses of inspiration to arts, literature, music, poems.

associated with apollo

Proteus :


“the old man of the sea”

son of Poseidon.

He is wise, prophetic, and could change to any shape.

chased by agamemnon

Scylla and Charybdis :


mythical sea monsters that lived between the strait of sicily and the boot.

Forces of nature…

1. Scylla was a nymph transformed into a monster that had 6 dog heads, shes a man eater (rock)

2. Charybdis was the whirpool or vortex

Tantalus :


the original mortals who do evil.

He cooked up his own sons flesh to offer it to the gods. Punished by the gods, he had unreachable desires.

He was made to stand in the middle of watter reaching for a fruit he could never get and never to drink when he was thirsty

Phlegethon :


flaming river” one of the 5 rivers to the underworld.

Stream of fire that flows to the depth of tartarus.

One of the stages of tirual burial

Priapus :

son of Aphrodite, and has many “different fathers who are gods”

he is a male fertility god.

His symbol is a giant erect penis who can turn away evil.

He is a good luck charm who brings wealth

Aristophanes symposium


people who were super strong stuck together and split in half , always searching for another’s half.
Socrates symposium –  
physical love should evolve in spiritual love ..that how u reach ultimate enlightment. Eros inspires all of this. To reach justice, morality and ethics

1. Syncretism




1. blending of separate but similar cults into a single religion.


2. Zeus from greek related to Jupiter from rome.


3. Egyptians had many animal-like gods who were lated syncretized by Alexander the great into more human-like gods.

2. serapis




1. hes is a greek-egyptian god


2. very popular in the roman empire, had temples all over Rome


3. his wife was Isis



3. hero cult




1. a mystery religion based on some heros actions and virtues, often worshipping their life style


2. Hercules had many hero cults around the Mediterranean since he was an international hero


3. ­ heroes buried in the undergound, so their worship is carried out undergound like in caves



    • Similar to mystery cults, but are focused on dead mortals that achieved a special status

    • both local and universal character

    • Chthonic cults involve heroes being worshipped at the place of their burial, such as in Mycenaean tholos tombs




4. spartoi




1. means “sown men”


2. five of the surviving from the battle royal are now founding fathers of Thebes


3. born from the ground thanks to Cadmus from the serpents teeth that was sacred to Ares

5. oedipal complex




1. associated with Oedipus, the hero of fate


2. his reward doesn’t come as quickly as the other heroes rewards


3. suffered all his life and gets his reward at the very end of his life

6. jocasta




1. wife of Lauis


2. mother of Oedipus


3. later marries Oedipus without knowing its him and have babies, and later kills herself for his life’s errors.

7. riddle of thre sphinx






1. if you did not solve it you would be eaten by the sphinx


2. Oedipus is the only one who solves it by answering “man”


3. this is quest, but its not a fight, its just a talk

8. pelops






1. son of tantalus, father of atreus


2. wanted to be fed to the gods by tantalus no one had a piece, expect Demeter, who ate his shoulder which later got fixed by a fake shoulder by the gods.


3. raced king oenomaus and won with  a fixed race and did not die

9. Iphigenia








1. daughter of Agamemnon and clytemestra


2.sacrificed to get the winds of the Aegean to travel to wage war on troy


3.she was set up to marry achilles but it was a fake


10. erinyes



1. they are the furies


2. they were transformed into the eumenides (kindly ones)


3. they persecute in the name of justice with vengeance

they have eye for an eye justice



12. xenia



1. guest/host relationship


2. offer food,shelter,gifts, information, identity


3. odysseus offered proper xenia with the Phaeacians

13. arête




1. virtue or excellence


2. heroic virtue, excellence, effectiveness for war,fighting, etc…

3. can be applied to both men and women (weaving, management for household, etc)



14. kleos



1. glory, enduring fame


2. you had to beat another serious opponent to get proper kleos (achilles vs hector)

3. looting cities and killing their men, taking women, and spreading wealth with your comrades

15. nostos




1. homecoming , return


2. the odyssey that odysseus took for ever to accomplish to get back home


3. Agamemnon returning home from troy thinking all was well but later got killed by his wife clytemestra

16. ajax the greater





1. from Salamis


2. second greatest greek warrior after achilles in the Trojan war


3. resolves conflicts through fighting


4. lost to odysseus in a contest for achilles godly armor and goes mad and commits suicide

17. Cassandra




1. daughter of king priam of troy


2. granted the gift of prophecy from Apollo cuz she refused him


3. she predicted the fall of troy and the Trojan horse trickery

18. oath of tyndareous




1. started the Trojan war


2. odysseus thought up the oath cuz he had no interest in helen


3. all men from Greece signed the oath and said if Helen was captured,everyone would go to war against the kidnapper

19. calchas the prophet




1. oracle who said the greeks needed the Aegean wind to go to troy


2. suggests the sacrifice of iphigenia


3. interprets the 9 year long war by a snake eating a bird until they capture troy

20. glaucus






1. son of hippolochus


2. captain in the Lycian army with his cousin Sarpedon


3. allies of troy

4. killed by ajax


21. meleager and the calydonian boar




1. son of althaea


2. gathered up a bunch of heroes to go kill the boar terrorizing the cities


3. the boar summoned by Diana to plague cities

22. briseis




1. prize of achilles


2. Agamemnon wanted to steal her from achilles so he got really mad


3. he was humiliated by this and decides to leave the war campaign

23. patroclus




1. young friend and companion of achilles


2. he takes achilles armor and stuff to battle but killed by hector


3. kills sarpedon

24. telemachus




1. son of odysseus and penelope


2. helps his father reconquer ithaca


3. never met his father as an infant until he was older


4. journeys to visit Nestor at pylos and Menelaus at Sparta

 25. alcinous




1. king of phaeacians


2. father of nausicaa, who found and saved odysseus from the shore


3. alcinous thought that if he helped odysseus he would be punished by Poseidon

26. lotus-eaters




1. odysseus goes with his men to north Africa and find lotus plants


2. his men eat the lotus flowers and are in forgetfulness of everything and their journey


3. his scouts eat the lotus but he doesn’t and then gets them back to the ship

27. laestrygonians






1. a cannibal race


2. giants with no divine lineage but very strong


3. they eat odysseus men and throw rocks at his ship

28. calypso




1. sea nymph


2. daughter of Atlas


3. held odysseus captive in an island for a few years and was sleeping with him

29. demodocus the bard






1. a blind man


2. tells the story where odysseus and achilles get into a fight and odysseus starts crying


3.king alcinous commands demodocus to stop telling it

30. eurycleia




1. odysseus nany all his life from a baby to now


2. threatened by odysseus to no reveal his identity yet to penelope


3.recognizes odysseus from his scar in the leg

31. odysseus and penelopes bed



1. their marriage was literally the bed next to a growing tree that represented their marriage


2. she tests odysseus to find out if its actually him

3. the olive tree is rooted to their bed

32. fasti




1. written by Ovid


2. describes the roman festival of the 1st six months of the roman calendar


3.describes the cults and their origins of their rituals

33. alba longa




1. precursor kingdom to rome


2. leads to the dynasty of kings that lead up to Romulus and Remus


3. last king of A.L was Eusurper

34. Vulcan




1. roman god of fire


2. associated with Hepheastus since hes a smith god


3. god of destruction


35. pontifex




    • “bridge builder”, word for priest

    • Tiberinus was the most important river-god, he controlled the bridge across the Tiber River

    • worshipped the Tiber river & it’s deity–pontifices threw substitute human sacrifices (straw dummies) into the river



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