Final Exam

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Plautus
Author of Pot of Gold
Euclio
owns the pot of gold buried in his house by his grandpa, is a miser (hoards that shit), rude/violent to cooks and slaves throughout the play
Megadorus
Wealthy neighbor of Euclio, wants to marry Phaedria, because she is poor and the dowry would be small and he would have more control over her.
Lyconides
nephew of Megadorus
Phaedria
Euclio’s daughter, pregnant by Lyconides
Lar/Lares
guardian deities of the household
shrine of Fides (‘faith, trust, duty’)
irony because of the theme of the play, distrust, greed, also Brandon referred to this as something similar to a bank at the time.
New Comedy
plays were held a temporary festivals, less related to politics, more related to household and societal norms, hence the stock characters, no chorus.
stock characters
characters that can be used in plays time and time again.
dowries
gold or valuables given from the father of the wife to the wife at marriage.
women and wealth
women with wealth had more power, when divorced women can take their dowry with them.
Livy
Historian
moralism
loss of morality, people and excessive wealth
exempla
learn from the past and look back and imitate good examples and learn from the bad ones.
Aeneas
founder of the city, when the history begins and ends in Livy’s own time with them emperor Augustus
Lavinia
Daughter of Latinus and Amata, last wife of Aeneus.
Ascanius
son of Aeneus
Rhea Silvia
Vestal Virgin, daughter of Numitor, descendant of Aeneus, gave birth to Romulus and Remus
Romulus & Remus
were ordered to be killed by Amulius (held the throne at the time), but servant instead showed mercy and sent them afloat down the Tiber river, and the she-wolf found them and raised them. Faustulus rescued them later on
Sabine Women
first generation of Roman men held religious festival and invited the sabine people and took all the women and raped them. They later on halted the battle between their fathers and their husbands. 
Lucretia
Most honorable woman of Rome, raped by Sextus Tarquinius, lead to the overthrow of the monarchy and turning Rome into a republic
Brutus
-Led the revolt overthrowing Luscius Tarquinius Superbus
Carthage
Fought against Rome in the punics wars
Punic Wars
between Carthage and Rome, 264 bc- 246 bc, began because Roman wanted to expand into Sicily which Carthage had controlled a portion of.
Scipio Africanus
general in the second punic war, Roman statesman, defeated Hannibal at the battle of Zama, the final battle in the second punic war
Hannibal
Leader of the Carthaginian return through the alps and the Battle of Zama, respected enemy but noted as very war driven and not a wholesome person.
Alps & elephants
the path the Hannibal took to come into Rome instead of from the south.
Lucretius
The author of On The Nature of Things
Epicureanism
Ovid is a follower of the philosophy, purpose: to divorce the mind from anxiety/ fear. Must banish fear of death, if you are not alive you cannot be miserable, Gods are not entertained with human life, survival of the fittest, evil consequences come with riches, want enjoyment/hapiness but in moderation. Also the anxiety of being obssessed with one woman is not worth it.
atoms and void
everything is made up of atoms, atoms are constantly in motion, forces of creation and destruction are balanced. atoms and things composed of atoms are the only 2 things that exist.
freedom from cares
enjoy life because hell and its torments only exist in our lifetime, hence, worries and anxieties that are seen in mythical stories (pushing boulder up hill then falling once almost there)
pleasure in moderation
pleasure is the greatest good, but the way to attain pleasure is by modesty and learning limits in your life.
romantic attachments
do not focus on one lover because it can fall through at any time and you will be left sad, engage in whatever romantic situations happen to occur. Men are blinded by passion from the faults of their beloved
mind/soul
both are intimately connected, both are subjected to birth and death.
Lesbia
Catullus writes many love poems to Lesbia ( a false name for his girlfriend Clodia)
love poetry
most about women but some are about homosexual love
polymetrics
short poems varying in meter.
literary style
Catullus wrote in many different meters including hendecasyllabic and elegiac couplets (common in love poetry)
invective
anger and blame poetry. can be vulgar and are targeted at people he does not like, other lovers of Lesbia. also at Cicero
Peleus and Thetis
Getting married in the poem that Catullus writes
Theseus and Ariadne
(ecphrasis) Pause in the narrative of Peleus and Thetis, describes a coverlet with the story of Theseus leaving Ariadne on an island after her helping him slay the minotaur
Vergil 
(70 BCE) not totally wealthy, father was concerned with his education, alive during the 49 BCE civil wars, wrote the ECLOGUES (poems about sheppards singing about the wars), writes the GEORGICS (includes opinion on the Actium)
Aeneas
 Escaped Troy while be burnt down, left with family except Creusa. Fated to start the city of Rome.
Anchises
Aeneus’ father, dies of old age, visited by Aeneus in the underworld
Creusa
wife of Aeneus, dies after being separated in the escape from Troy, visits Aeneus in a dream and tells him that he is fated to found Rome.
Venus, Juno, Jupiter
Rage of Juno against the Trojans, because she knows there descendants will destroy Carthage, her favorite city. Venus is Aeneus’ real mother, visits him in another form and tells him the future history of Rome, also gets Cupid to make Dido fall in love with Aeneus which Venus likes because she wants to stop Aeneus from founding Rome. Jupiter sends Mercury to remind Aeneus he must leave Carthage. (In general, God intervention and Aeneus’ conflict with his fate)
Ascanius/Iulus
Aeneus’ sons
Dido
Queen of Carthage, goes ham on Aeneus’ penis while in cave, thinks they are married, kills herself when he leaves.
Fall of Troy
The beginning of the epic poem, Aeneus and his family flees and others escape on ships.
Sibyl
guides Aeneus to the underworld to see Anchises
golden bough
Key to get into the underworld, somewhere in a forest.
Aeneus in the underworld
sees Dido, feels kinda sad, sees Greeks and Trojans, finally finds Anchises, tries to hug him 3 times, Anchises tells him the history of Aeneus’ future (Rome)
Palinurus
experienced navigator on the ship after escaping Troy, drug by the God of sleep off the boat as the sacrifice to ensure a safe voyage for the others, he drifted ashore and was killed, didn’t have proper burial, is not able to cross the river Cocytus in the underworld when Aeneus sees him there.
Latinus
King of Lavinia, understands fate and gives daughters hand to Aeneas
Amata
Queen, Latinus’s wife, Juno forces her to attest marriage causing mo’ problems
Lavinia
daughter of king and queen
Turnus
Aneas’s biggest enemy, leader of army that fights the trojans and allies (wants Lavinia)
Latins & Rutulians
 Turnus was a Rutulian who was promised Lavinia’s hand in marriage, Turnus was the leader of the Rutulians. They were allies.
Evander
;King of Arcadia, ally of Aeneas, sends troops and son to help fight Turnus
Pallas
son of Evander, killed by Turnus, Turnus takes his sword belt
shield of Aeneas
made by Vulcan, Venus’ husband.
epic hero
Aeneus has the role of an epic hero but he continuously shows resistance of it which is a theme that carries throughout the epic.
appropriation of Homeric epic
written in dactylic hexameter, uses some similar literary tools,
Roman-ness / Greek-ness
 Roman quality (pietas) selfless duty to one’s state, Aeneas fits this quality by finishing his voyage to found a state that is not even made yet. Greek-ness comes from the fact the this story takes off where the greek epic ended, there are many references to famous characters from the Iliad and the past tells much about the future actions in this play. Greeks have all been punished for their actions at the end of the war.
Roman present
Trojans have been looking to found a new city after their escape, The present day Rome is conveyed to him as his fate and the place where is journey must end and the foundation must begin.
mytho-history
the telling of history within a mythical framework, tells the story of Aeneus’ journey with the inclusion of Gods guiding his path.
Octavian/Augustus
Aeneas is told the story of Octavian and Augustus and how the people admire them and that they are famous leaders.
Antony/Cleopatra
portrayed being defeated by Augustus in the battle of Actium on the shield is welded for Aeneas by Vulcan. (ecphrasis)
civil war
 war among the Romans to decide the rightful ruler. Octaviun wins the wars and distributes people’s land to his soldiers and people
prophecy in Aeneid
one prophecy says that Palinurus will arrive safely on land, but leaves out the fact that he will be killed once he is seen, do not always get the full picture from prophecies.
Ovid
Author of Metamorphoses.;early career consisted of literature about love. exiled to Tomis by Augustus on false charges
creation in Metamorphoses
A creator separated earth from heaven, sea from land, and lighter air from heavier air. He then made beings to inhabit these new spaces: Gods and stars filled the heavens, fish the seas, beasts the land, and birds the air. Man was created to rule the world.
four ages of man in Metamorphoses
gold (trust, morality, fruitful) , silver (people had to work for a living), bronze(first wars, still some morality), iron (nothing sacred, even family ties led to bloodshed, humans treat gods with disrespect)
flood in Metamorphoses
Jupiter decides to punish humanity, Deucalion and Pyrrha survive because of their goodness
Deucalion and Pyrrha
Get advice from Themis on how to repopulate the earth, throw stones over their backs and these turn into humans.
Apollo and Daphne
;Cupid strikes Apollo with arrow after he trash talks to him, then Cupid shoots Daphne with an arrow, ;of repulsion, Apollo chases her and she runs away crying to her father for help, who turns her into a tree, Apollo gropes and kisses the tree.
Io
raped by Jupiter, Juno gets suspiscious, Jupiter turns her into a cow, she is eventually transformed back and has a son, Epaphus by Jupiter
Pan and Syrinx
the story of how Mercury’s reed pipe came to be while trying to lull Argus to kill him, Pam loves Syrinx (nymph), Syrinx wishes to remain a virgin, calls for aid and is turned into a reed bush, Pam sighs and realizes that his sighs make music through the reed.
Phaethon
wants to know who his father is, finds out that it is the Sun, Sun says he will grant him one thing he wants, he wishes to drive the Sun’s chariot, which he gets to close to the earth and Jupiter strikes him with a lightning bolt and kills him.
Orpheus and Eurydice
Eurydice is bitten by a snake on the day of their wedding and dies, Orpheus goes to underworld to appeal to Persephone, it is allowed on the condition that Orpheus does not look back at her as she follows him out of the underworld, he looks back and she’s gone forever, he never loves another woman and turns to young boys, sings beautiful songs about it, women tear him to pieces in a fury, Bacchus (dionysus) shuns them and turns them into oak trees.
Ganymede
(orpheus’ song) Jove fell in love with Ganymede and, disguised as an eagle, stole him away from Juno
Hyacinthus
(orpheus’ song) the boy lover of Phoebus, who was accidentally killed by a discus thrown by the god. At Phoebus Apollo’s wish, in the place where Hyacinthus spilled his blood, a new flower sprung up – the Hyacinthia.
Pygmalion
Witnesses prostitution and is angered, so he makes his perfect woman out of ivory and she becomes real and they have a daughter.
Myrrha
One of the furies breathes on Myrrha, Cinyras’s daughter, and infects her with an unnatural love for her father. Fucks dad, he finds out, she runs, and is turned into a tree.
Adonis
(Orpheus song) Myrrha’s child, Adonis, remains inside of her, and Lucina magically splits the tree when he is ready to be born. Cupid accidently scrapes his mom (Venus) with an arrow. While Adonis is hunting he gets his dick eaten by a boar (literally), Venus weaps and turns him into a flower.
Death of Orpheus
he never loves another woman and turns to young boys, sings beautiful songs about it, women tear him to pieces in a fury, Bacchus (dionysus) shuns them and turns them into oak trees.
Tacitus
historian. Author of The Annals
Augustus in Tacitus
First Roman Emperor
Nero
Was made Emperor at a very young age. Was Emperor from 54-68
Agrippina
Nero’s mother. He plots to kill her in an arranged boat accident. She is later killed by Nero’s order when he sent Anicetus and others to kill her. her last words are “smite my womb”
Seneca in Tacitus
Advisor who kills himself by cutting arteries and veins with a dagger. Also ordered his friend to bring him a fatal poison, his old age made his bleeding slow and therefore his pain was drawn out. Because of his philosophy her had in his will to be buried without any of the traditional shit that gets you into the underworld.
Burrus
Advisor to Nero. Helped plan the death of Agrippina. Later died but causes are unknown, some think poison.
Poppaea
married to Nero after Octavia.
Octavia
sister of the emperor augustus. Gets pregnant but gets it aborted. Nero kind of takes her as his second wife.;
fire at Rome in Tacitus
Created by Nero to build his own palace once Rome is burnt down, he later blames the Christians
decay and excess in Tacitus
Nero indulges in extravagance as he gets older, builds the Golden Palace of Nero after the fire he set. After Nero’s reign the power that Rome has by one empreror is lost because four people fight over the reign.
conspiracy in Tacitus
There is a large conspiracy to kill Nero which fails and he kills many of those who were involved.
bias/partiality in Tacitus
Nero intends to be unbiased in his recall of the Roman empire but often favors certain alternatives over others which shows his biased in opinion.
generational decline in Tacitus
From Tiberius to Caligula to Claudius to Nero there was a decline in  the strength of good leadership and the empire as a whole, after Nero the year of four emprerors followed.
drama in Tacitus
Tacitus stylizes his work, doesn’t quote directly and makes the best inferences as to what he thinks happened.
Seneca
Author of Phaedra. Stoic philosopher, dramatist, in the age of Claudius and Nero, forced to commit suicide by Emperor Nero (similar to Socrates and the Hemloch), one of the wealthiest people of his time
tragedy in Phaedra
Seneca takes his philosophy and Roman values and puts his spin on the Hippolytus play by Euripidies. Leaves out the gods, includes gory scenes, focuses on virtue and courage as opposed to divine intervention
Hippolytus
;praises virgin goddess Diana, shows disdain for his stepmother, when she admits her love he draws his sword on her but instead runs away.
Theseus
father to Hippolytus, acts in place of the gods deciding on the burial of Phaedra and when he puts Hippolytus back together ending the story as the god’s ended Euripedes’ version
Nurse
Tries to convince Phaedra that her deed will not go unconcealed if she goes through with it and the gods will expose her. After Phaedra threatens suicide the nurse gives in and says she will help her.
Phaedra
;Insane orgasmic love for her stepson Hippolytus, threatens suicide and vows to follow him. confesses her love to him and in his rejection she claims rape.
Pasiphae
daughter of Apollo, who was cursed to fall in love with a bull and give birth to a monster, the Minotaur. Phaedra wonders if she is as doomed as her mother was.

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