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Pop-out effect
Things jump out and grab attention more than other things in a given music line or contour
Illari & Sundara, 2009
Had infants listen to unnaccompanied Chinese “maow” lullaby
Also had infants listen to accompanied Chinese lullaby
Cut songs into 4 excerpts
Headturn preference procedure
Results: infants listened longer to unaccompanied on average, across all age groups
Embodied cognition
We should be thinking about the whole body when thinking about cognition.
-How does the way you move influence what we hear
-Does movement influence the auditory encoding of rhythm?
Competence
Distinction: Unconscious knowledge of possible grammatical structures in an idealized speaker
Performance
Distinction: Actual production and comprehension of language in specific instances of language use
Communicative competence
understanding appropriateness of understanding music/speech and the use of it
Principal of categorical perception
Perception of sounds that vary along acoustic continuum as belonging to two or more distinct categories without any intermediate cases
Bilabial stop consonant
Two lips stopping air. (bah) (pah)
Voice onset time
When voice is actually heard when using bilabial stop consonants
Phillip-silver & Trainor
-Bounced infants differing on half-beats and beats
-Following this, infants tested by listening to sound samples with accents to test preference
Reason for slower pace of grammar acquisition
1. Infants are exposed to fewer music phrases than linguistic ones
2. Practical communicative benefits of knowledge are fewer than those of structural linguistic knowledge
Rules
Require learners to abstract away from specific items in experience to discover underlying structure
Statistical learning
Detecting patterns of sounds, words, or other units in environment that are underlying structure
Vocal onset time relationship with perception
As it increases, likelihood of perceiving “pa” over “ba” increases as well
Voicing
Engaging vocal chords and air being pushed out. People naturally categorize similar sounds
Segmental-level processing
Processing of sound happens in segments, not in streams. Segments= consonant-vowel pairs
Suprasegmentation
Prosodic features acting across many language segments. These include
1. Pitch
2. Loudness (decibles) or energy
3. Duration, or rate at which one produces speech
4. Spectral- voice quality and distinction of voice quality over time
Learning mechanisms
Statistical learning, rules, transitional probabilities, principles, and mechanisms
Transitional probabilities
Probabilities that syllables follow one another and serve as cues to word boundaries
Principles
Means by which mechanisms function
Mechanisms
Stimulus goes in and comes out differently, physical device substantiated by neurons
Musical-rhythmic behavior
group of subskills concurrently operating and hierarchically organized
General timing abilities
General ability to time things in the world so that our behaviors occur in congruence with these events
Smooth and ballistic movement
continuous and burst
Eye movement
-saccade
1. initialization
2. momentum
3. deceleration
Perception of pulse
Perceived regularities build expectations as to the timing of future events
Coupling of action and perception
Dancing/tapping to listening to music is an example
Error correction mechanisms
1. Phase correction: phase-related adjustments involve unconscious (dorsal) processes. Puts performers in sync with each other
2. Period correction: period adjustments involve conscious (ventral) processes related to perception and planning.
Rhythm in language
1. Syllable-time language: every syllable is perceived as taking up about the same time although absolute length of time depends on the prosody
Stress-time languages
Syllables may last different amounts of time but there is perceived to be a fairly constant amount of time or average between consecutive stressed syllables
Rhythm perception is..
Different in different languages
1. In general, lower sounds tend to mark beginning of a group
2. Lengthened sound often marks the end of a group
Iverson, Patel and Ogush, 2006
Found American speakers believe sound clips start at loud-soft
Music manipulation experiment
1. First transformation: each phoneme is replaced by a particular member of its own class
2. Second transformation: all consonants are replaced by (s) and vowels with (a)
Stress-timed
Equal time between stresses
Syllable timed
Equal time between syllable onsets
Normalized pairwise variability index (nPUI)
measure of duration variability
Relationship between duration difference and average length
Duration difference between each pair of intervals is measured relative to the average length of the pairs. English has a higher nPUI
Ecological theory of music preferences
Musical preference makes important contribution to the formation and maintenance of social identity by providing individuals with a social comparison for self-evaluation.
-It allows to note aesthetic distinctions between oneself and others
How music spreads according to Noah mark
Through social network ties
Assumptions of the ecological theory
1. Network transmission: music preferences spread through network ties. You develop musical taste similar to those you interact with
2. Principle of Homophily: People who are similar in sociodemographic characteristics are more likely to interact with each other than people who are dissimilar
3. Time constraints: more a person likes a type of music the less time and energy that person has to develop and maintain preferences for other types
Cultural capital
form of knowledge that equips social agents with empathy toward appreciation for more competence in deciphering cultural relations and cultural artifacts
Niche hypothesis
A Person’s probability of liking a type of music is negatively related to the person’s social distance from the niche center of that type of music
Familiarity hypothesis
People located outside of the niche of a type of music and who are not fans of that music are less likely to be familiar with that type of music than are nonfans located inside the niche
Niche number hypothesis
The greater the number of niches in which a person is located, the greater the number of types of music with which that person is familiar
Niche
Social space from which a type of music most heavily draws its resources
Niche overlap hypothesis
If a person is in the niche of a type of music, the probability that that person will like that type of music is negatively correlated with the number of niches that intersect at that persons location in sociodemographic space
Weak preference hypothesis
The number of weak musical preferences a person maintains is positively related to the number of niches that overlap that person’s location in social space
Strong preference hypothesis
The number of weak musical preferences a person maintains is more strongly related to the number of niches that overlap at that person’s location in social space than is the number of strong preferences a person maintains
Six hypotheses by Mark
1. Niche hypothesis
2. Familiarity hypothesis
3. Niche number hypothesis
4. Niche overlap hypothesis
5. Weak preference hypothesis
6. Strong preference hypothesis
Cultural omnivore
High-status people with wide variety of cultural tastes, including elite and non-elite cultural forms
Cultural univores
Low-status people only familiar with mass culture and not elite
Distinguishing features of human rhythmic entrainment
1. It typically occurs in much more complex contexts than a mere isochronous pulse.
2. Ability to entrain to a wide
range of tempi to the longest interval that can be retained as a memory trace
3. It’s crossmodal nature, illustrated by the types of rhythmic movement that are aimed at synchronization but not sound production,such as in dance
Three components of entrainment
1. Rhythm detection (auditory system)
2. Rhythmic action (musculoskeletal system)
3. Integration of input and output
Building blocks of entrainment
1) the ability to detect rhythmic signals in the environment
2) the ability to produce rhythmic signals (including rhythmic signals that are byproducts of other functions, such as locomotion or feeding behavior), and 3) the ability to integrate sensory
information and motor production which enables adjustment of motor output based on rhythmic input
Self-entrainment
rhythmic responsiveness to self-generated rhythmic signals
Social entrainment
responsiveness to
rhythmic information generated by others
Two types of social entrainment
1. Mutual social entrainment: Rhythmic responsiveness during bidirectional information processing between two individuals results in a “loop” where output of each individuals’ rhythmic production provides input for the other’s processing system
2. Collective social entrainment: Characterized by a network of input/output connections among individuals of a group
Stress-timed vs syllable-timed in regards to vowels
stress-timed languages show a greater degree of vowel reduction than syllable-timed languages suggesting that the variability of vowel duration
should be greater in stress- vs. syllable-timed languages
Stress-timed vs syllable-timed in terms of consonant sequences
stress-timed languages tend to permit complex syllables and thus may have greater durational variability in consonant sequences than syllable-timed languages (Ramus et al., 1999).
Meme
Theoretical unit of cultural information that propagates from one mind to another
-bits of information that travel together because of their structure
-it is the underlying representation, not the thing itself
Darwintunes
Researchers wanted to see if musical structure evolves
-they presented listeners with pairs of sounds and asked their preference
-they would combine sounds that were preferred and discarded undesirable ones
Self-organized
Things that arrange themselves free from instruction. For example, and anthill does not require instructions to create, it just is built
Rhythmic entrainment
coupling of rhythmic oscillators
Ecological evolutionary theory of music
you pick up or share the preferences of those around you
Entrainment
coupling of independent oscillators (any entity that has periodic output). Requires transfer of energy.
-They have independent motors within that affects others outside
Rules
Require learners to abstract away from specific sentences and figure out underlying structure
Statistical learning
learning patterns of sounds that cue underlying structures (children pick up what is most likely to occur after certain sounds, and learn language this way)
Mechanism
Process by which an input is transformed and then exported as a distinct, different output in comparison to the input
Principle
The means by which the transformation of the input occurs within a mechanism
Frequency is
Cycles per second
nPVI (Patel)
You can measure variation in duration of vowels in both music and language. French has less variation than English. This is correlated with nPVI. Duration difference between a pair of intervals measured relative to the duration of each interval.
Increase in nPVI equals
Increase in variability
Three states of phases
Counterphase
in phase
out of phase
Plosive
Voice onset time is voicing time relative to the use of the plosive
Phillips-silver & Trainor experiment
-Experiment 1: Trained 7 month olds by bouncing them on every second beat, or on every third beat while listening to a 2-minutes music excerpt. After, they were tested for preference and found that they listened longer to excerpts that matched the beats they were bounced on
-Experiment 2: Identical to experiment 1 except they were blindfolded. Same results found
-Experiment 3: Instead of being bounced, infants watched the bouncing of a confederate. No preference was found here
-These results support connection between body movement and auditory rhythm processing
Patel (2003)
Britain and France, two countries whose natives speak languages that
are rhythmically quite distinct; British English tends to have a high degree
of syllable-to-syllable variability in syllable length, whereas French syllables
are somewhat more evenly timed. Using a measure of rhythmic variability
first developed for language, the authors discovered that British and French
music differ in much the same manner and direction as do British and French
speech.
Reason for slower pace of musical grammar acquisition
(1)infants are exposed to fewer examples of musical phrases than linguistic
ones (which seems likely, though this has not been shown quantitatively)
(2) the practical communicative benefits of knowledge about tonal
structure are fewer than the benefits of structural linguistic knowledge.
Two distinctions
1. Performance: actual production and comprehension of language in specific instances of language use
2. Competence: unconscious knowledge of possible grammatical structures in an idealized speaker
2.
Ulang & Sundara, 2009
Had 2 versions of traditional chinese song
1. Unaccompanied
2. Accompanied

Infants listened longer to unaccompanied song across all ages

Embodied cognition
Body also influences our cognition of music when physical action is coupled with listening to music
Suprasegmental processing
Prosodic features act across many language segments, such as pitch, loudness, duration, and spectral.
Perception of pulse
perceived regularities build expectations as to the timing of future events
Period correction
adjusting length of the period itself to make the two performers in sync with each other
syllable timed language
every syllable is perceived as taking up the same amount of time
Stress timed
perceived to be a fairly equal amount of time between stresses, despite differences in syllable onsets

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