CLT3378 Ancient Mythology Exam 2

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Who is Shahriar?
Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights)
was a good sultan until his wife ___ commits adultery and then after that he marries a virgin, sleeps with her, and then kills her
___ tells him stories, he becomes humanized
Who is Sultaness?
Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights)
wife of sultan
commits adultery
cause sultan to become evil, marry virgin, sleep with her, and then kill her
Who is Scheherazade (or Shahrazad)
Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights)
vizier’s daughter
volunteers to marry the evil sultan ___
aims to stop him from murdering virgins, begins to tell him a story but doesn’t finish it, finish it the next day and then tell another half of a story….continues for 1001 nights, eventually __ becomes humanize and stops killing, thus Shahrazad succeeded
ID: Frame Story
A frame story is a story imbedded in another story; an example would be the Arabian “Tale of Buluqiya”. Queen Yamlika is narrating “Tale of Buluqiya” to Hasib, which is within another story: “The Thousand and One Nights” being narrated by Shahrazad to Shahriar
Why were Buluqiya and Affan’s actions consider sacrilegious?
1. robbing from the dead (graverobbers)
2. trying to become god-like
2/3 divine
Referring to the “Epic of Gilgamesh”. Gilgamesh is 2/3 divine because his mother is the goddess Ninsun in version 1 of his birth (Belit-ili/Mami/Nintu) and his father is Lugulbanda who while alive was mortal but once he died became deified and thus a god
Who is Shamhat?
Prostitute in the Epic of Gilgamesh
hunter’s trap, ensnares Enkidu
has sex with Enkidu for 6 days and 7 nights
causing Enkidu to become civilized
6 days 7 nights
means a long time, ex:
– The amount of time Enkidu has sex with Shamhat
– The amount of time Gilgamesh must go without sleeping
– The length of the flood in Utnapishtim’s flood myth
wards off evil, a face could be so hideous that it actually wards off monsters
in this case referring to Humbaba in the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
Ellil assigns him the job of protecting the Pine Forest
With the help of the god Shamash and the 4 winds, Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill Humbaba
Humbaba issues a curse to Gilgamesh and Enkidu saying they will die soon themselves
Epic of Gilgamesh
goddess of sexual desire (binatural?)
Wants Gilgamesh but Gilgamesh turns her down saying he knows bad things happen to mortals who get involved with goddess (ex: man becomes cripple after having sex with Aphrodite)
Ishtar becomes angry and threatens to her father Anu she will raise dead if he does not give her the Bull of Heaven
Epic of Gilgamesh
When Gilgamesh turns down the goddess Ishtar, Ishtar becomes angry and threatens her father that she will raise the dead to eat the living if Anu does not give her the bull of heaven
Epic of Gilgamesh
alewife (beer seller), tells Gilgamesh to find Urshanabi who will then lead Gilgamesh to Utnapishtim (the only man to become immortal)

means explanation

Flood in Ovid’s Metamorphoses

– humans are hard because we come from stones

Epic of Gilgamesh – Gilgamesh finds plant that Utnapishtim told him about the restores youth but snakes steals it from him. – Due to snake eating plant snake’s shed its skin


Tablet 12
Epic of Gilgamesh
– seems like an unnecessary addition made possibly by an editor later
– talks about the ghost of Enkidu
– Tablet 11 ends so nicely with Gilgamesh realizing he has achieved cultural immortality
– started with the mention of Gilgamesh building Uruk’s walls and ends with it
Epic of Gilgamesh
– Gilgamesh built Uruk’s walls, thus achieved cultural immortality
– Bull of Heaven also attacks Uruk
Epic of Gilgamesh sun god father of Shamhat? NOT SURE Ninsun prays to Shamash to help Gilgamesh on his quest against Humbaba Shamash gives Gilgamesh the 4 winds to fight Humbaba with
– binatural goddess, discord
– not invited to Peleus and Thetis’s wedding due to being discord
– upset that she wasn’t invited to wedding so she crashes the wedding by throwing a golden apples into the middle of it with the words (for the most beautiful)
– Hera (Zeus’s wife), Athena and Aphrodite (Zeus’s daughter) fight for apple
– daughter of Zeus, she is half divine
– super power: beauty
– whole Trojan war is started because Paris either stole Helen or Helen voluntarily left Sparta (which is in Greece) to go with Paris to Troy
Greek for stranger? guest-host relationship
– Greek for hospitality
– Trojan war started because of breach in Xenia (hospitality)
– Paris, a guest in Sparta (which is in Greece), steals Helen and takes her to Troy, or possible Helen voluntarily leave with him. Either way stealing host’s wife is against hospitality
– NOT the king of Greece as a whole but king of Mycenae, the most powerful city in Greece
– Odysseus is a Greek warrior known for his smarts
– best at speaking
– super power: clever and good speak
another word for Troy
in medias res
“in the middle of things”
– referring to how Iliad occurs in the middle of the Trojan War, occurs in 9th year of Trojan War

term used after Homer’s time that Greeks used to refer to themselves

Homer uses the terms Achaeans, Argives, Danaans to describe the Greeks

Homer never refers to the Greeks as being Greek, what terms does he use to refer to the Greeks?
Achaeans, Argives, Danaans
Greek for rage
– referring to how Iliad is centered on Achilles rage/anger
– Initially Achilles is angry at Agamemnon but after Patroclus’s death Achilles is angry at Hector.
– first word is subject/theme of poem
Oral poetry
compose poetry on the fly in front a live audience
– proposed that Homer’s Iliad was oral poetry
– memorized formulas to insert into gaps when you need it
ex: preparation for war, dinner scene
– Homer knew about things before his time due to words being passed on throughout time through oral poetry
– Greek warrior, second best at fighting to Achilles
– Agamemnon sends Odysseus, Phoenix, and Ajax to convince Achilles to come back
– Ajax is successful at convincing Achilles to not leave, says Achilles should be ashamed for trying to abandon his fellow soldiers
– Achilles says he will join the fighting when the Greeks are in the most trouble (when the Trojans attempt to burn their ships)
Dactylic Hexameter

poetic meter for Homeric epic of Achilles

consists of:

– dactyls: long syllabel followed by 2 short ones

– spondees: 2 longs syllabels

1 long syllable followed by 2 short syllables
ex: dumb di dee
– use dactyls for fast things such as horses galloping
2 long syllables
ex: dung dung
– use spondees for slow things like trudging through mud or the mourning of something
homeland of Achilles
– priest of Apollo
– his daughter, Chryseis was taken by the greeks so he prays for Apollo to put a curse on the Greeks, Apollo does this
– daughter of Chryses (priest of Apollo)
– taken by the Greeks
– Agamemnon’s prize
– responsible for her father praying to Apollo to put curse on the Greeks
– greek for “spoil of war, war prize
– the more gerata= the more time/honor
– Greek for honor
– time= gerata (spoils of war) when you alive, so the more gerata (the more things from war) you have the more time/honor you have
– the more stuff you have= the more time you have= the more honor you have
– ex: if Agamemnon gives Chrseis back to her father Chryses he will lose some time/honor
– Greek for glory
– You get Kleos from the deeds you have accomplished in your life.
– You get Kleos/glory when you are dead.
– The more deeds you do before you die, the more Kleos/glory you have once you die.
– Achilles’ geras (war prize)
– Achilles tells Agamemnon to give Chryseis back so that the curse will be lifted off of the Greeks and they can stop dying
– Agamemnon says this isn’t fair, if he must lose time so must Achilles, so he takes Briseis away from Achilles
Which gods are pro-greek? Which gods are pro-Trojan?
Pro Greek: – Hera, Athena (Paris didn’t choose them as the most beautiful), possibly Hephaestus he did  make Achilles armor after all Pro-Trojan: – Apollo, Aphrodite I think
– aged king of Pylos
– advisor
– says men are better in past than now, Greeks in the present feel the same way about heroes in the past such as Achilles
– sea goddess, sea nymph
– mother of Achilles
– prays to Zeus to cause the Greeks to lose any battle Achilles does not fight in
Achilles’ men
Achilles’s tutor
Agamemnon sends Phoenix, Odysseus, and Ajax to convince Achilles to fight for Greek since they keep losing without him (due to Zeus’ curse)
Athena said that Achilles would eventually be offered great gold/gifts if he holds back from killing Agamemnon
– Greek for fates
– refers to the fact that Achilles has two fates:
1. stay home at Greece? and live a long life, dies at an old age, nothing eventful will happen
2. go to Troy, have a short life, but have eternal kleos (glory)
eternal kleos: practically immortla because poeple will constantly be talking about your actions years from now
– Trojan warrior
– Patroclus kills him
– Zeus’ son, from Lycia
– Zeus likes Sarpedon so debated with Hera if he should save him, Hera says no because then all the gods would want to save their favorites (shows gods can change fate)
Deathbed prophecy
Epic of Gilgamesh
– Humbaba says Gilgamesh and Enkidu will die right before he dies
– Patroclus says Achilles will kill Hector right before Patroclus dies
– Hector curses Achilles before he dies? UNSURE
Greek craftsman god
– creates Achilles armor
– shoots fire at the river god Scamander when Scamander is trying to drown Achilles
– in Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound Hephaistos ordered to chain Promethues to cliff
Achilles’ heel
Homer does not know about this or chooses to ignore this
If Homer thought Achilles was immortal he wouldn’t have Achilles carry armor and shield
– binatural god: river god
– tries to drown Achilles
– Athena and Poseidon save Achilles
– tries to drown Achilles again
– Hera, Hephaistos save AChilles, Hephaistos shoots fire at him
– Apollo appears as Agenor, Trojan warrior, to lure Achilles away from Troy’s walls by tricking Achilles into chasing him
– Athena appears next to Hector as Deiphobus (Hector’s brother)
– tricks Hector into stop running due to Hector thinking he has a chance to defeat Achilles with Deiphobus’ help
– Hector throws a spear at Achilles, hits shield, tells Deiphobus to give him another spear, sees that Deiphobus is gone and thus Hector was tricked and Achilles kills him
– binatural god: rainbow
– messenger god
– tells Thetis Zeus wants to talk to her, Zeus tells Thetis to tell Achilles to give Hector’s body back to family, gods aren’t happy
– Iris tells Priam to ransom to Achilles for Hector’s body
– King of Troy, father of Hector
– told by Iris to ransom to Achilles for Hector’s body
– Hermes leads him to Greek’s camp
Achilles’ father
– marries the goddess Thetis (Achilles’ mother)
Beowulf – means country person – people in the country side were most resistant to converting to Christianity – remember Beowulf’s author is unknown but we do know he was Christian – converted multiple gods of Beowulf into one god
Beowulf’s people
song of Ecgtheow, nephew of Hygelac (king of the Geats)
King of the Geats
– Beowulf’s uncle
– king of the Danes (or shieldings)
– adviser to Hrothgar
– questions Beowulf at first, mentions swimming contest loss
– gives Beowulf Hrunting
Beowulf’s second self
– Hrothgar’s stronghold/hall
– means deer
– practically a character in itself
– plagues Heorot
– noise of feasting annoys him so he seizes and kills Danes/Shieldings
– skin is invulnerable to weapons
– Beowulf puts him in strong grip, only way Grendel can get out of grip is by l heaving his arm and shoulder behind
– Grendel bleeds to death
Beowulf’s armor
invulnerable to weapons
– Unferth taunts Beowulf, how can you defeat Grendel when you lost a swimming match against Breca- Beowulf lost because during the match he killed 9 monsters
– sword given to Beowulf by Unferth
– Beowulf uses it against Grendel’s mother, its unable to pierce Grendel’s mother skin though so it is ineffective and Beowulf must use another bigger sword he finds in Grendel’s mother lair
– shatters? NOT SURE
Anglo-Saxon afterlife
probably like Norse afterlife
– hell is cold, dreary realm
– last word in Beowulf
– most desirable of lof (praise, glory)
– lof is an old English word for praise, glory, deeds
– lof= praise by living, deeds
– Anglo-Saxon lof is similar to Homeric Kleos
Flood in Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Roman)

In Ovid’s Metamorphoses ekpyrosis is Roman for conflagration. The Stoics believed that one day a cycle of a fire and a flood would destroy the universe. It is due to this that Jupiter decides to not use fire to kill the humans but instead to use a flood, due to Jupiter being afraid the fire will not only consume Earth but heaven also.

Flood in Ovid’s Metamorphoses

This appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses and it is a Roman word that means impossible. It is referring to the impossible things that happened once Jupiter and his brother Neptune unleashed the flood on Earth. An example would be sea creatures not being in the sea but instead on land.

Deucalion, Pyrrha, Prometheus, and Epimetheus, who is who’s parents and who are the smart ones and dumb ones

Prometheus/Deucalion = smart ones (forethought)

Epimetheus/Pyrrha= dumb ones (afterthought)

Ovid’s Metamorphoses always contains one transformation, what’s the transformation in the flood myth?
the turning of stones into humans

hardness (aetiology = explanation)
humans are hard because created out of stones

Popular in Greek culture, especially prevalent in both Hesiod’s Theogony and Work and Days
– means hatred women
– belief that women are the source of evil, punishment for men
– exception: Homer’s Odyssey contains a strong female character
what does the word pandora mean?
pan= all dora= gifts referring to the fact that in Hesiod’s Work and Days the first woman was named Pandora due to the fact that the first woman received so many gifts from the gods

people always say Pandora’s box: pyxis
this is wrong its actually Pandora’s pithos (jar)

pithos is a huge jar, human size

kalon kakon
Appears in Hesiod’s Theogony, its Greek for beautiful evil. It is referring to how women are beautiful but yet evil due to their deceitful nature and ability to ensnare men.
How is Hephaistos crown similar to woman?
Hephaistos golden crown contains beautiful animals that seem life-like, but in fact they deceive you because they are not real but actually fake.
Just like woman, they are beautiful but they will also deceive you because they are in fact not nice but evil.

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