CLT 3370

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Life Cycle of Men
Citizen
18
Life Cycle of Men
education
6-13
Life Cycle of Men
ephebe
initiation rites from 18-20
Kouros
epitome of Greek young male
hoplite warfare
on foot with short swords and spears
symposium
all male drinking party
parthenos
0-14 for a girl. seen as dangerous because she could become pregnant without a husband.
gyne
mother
ideal woman
tall, beautiful, submissive, fertile, chaste, silent, and virtually invisible outside house
Miasma
“pollution” curses or menstruation, or dealing with dead bodies
Ghosts of the Dead
must receive proper offerings or will haunt the living
Blood Guilt
killing family or guests
Vergil
The Aeneid
National Epic of the Romans attaching them to Troy.
The Aeneid
National Epic of the Romans attaching them to Troy. written by Vergil
Ovid
The Metamorphoses
Stories of transformation.
The Metamorphoses
Stories of transformation. Written by Ovid
Cosmogony
origins of the world
Theogony
origins of the gods (Greeks most interested in)
Hesiod
Theogony
Origins of the gods written in the Archaic Period.
Chaos
“chasm” First “being” in the universe.
Gaea
“earth”
Children of Gaea
Uranus “sky”
Mountains
Pontus “sea”
Gaea + Uranus
o Titans- untamed forces of nature
Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, Cronus
o Cyclopes
o Hecatonchires
Titans
untamed forces of nature (12 of them)

Oceanus, Hyperion, Rhea, Cronus

Cyclopes
1 eye. three of them. black smiths of the gods. make Zeus’s thunderbolts
sons of Gaea + Uranus or Cronus + Rhea
Hectonchires
50 heads 100 hands. side with Gods. sons of Gaea + Uranus or Cronus + Rhea
Gaea + Pontus
monsters and sea deities

(Gorgons, Cerberus, Chimera, Sphinx, and the Nereids.)

Tartarus
“deep darkness”
Gaea + Tartarus
Typhoeus- has 100 heads and very strong. Zeus has to fight single handedly.
Eros
“sexual love” one of the original cosmic beings.
Children of Chaos
Erebus “darkness”
Nyx “night”
Erebus
“darkness”
Nyx
“night”
Children of Nyx
Moerae “Fates”
Nemesis “Retribution”
Erebus + Nyx
Aether “Radiance”
Hamera “day”
Oceanus + Tethys
(Titans)
Oceanids- 6000 water spirits
Hyperion’s Children
Helius- sun god
Selene- moon
Eos- dawn
Helius
sun god
Selene
moon
Eos
dawn
Phaethon
(in Ovid) Son of Helius. Sun god drives chariot across sky every day pulled by huge horses. His son Phaethon wants to drive the chariot, but is not as powerful as his father (the son of Helius and a mortal woman). The sun sways through the sky and scorches the people of Africa. Phaethon must be killed to get the sun back in control.
Endymion
A mortal who Selene loved. o He is given the choice between being hers or going into an immortal sleep. He chose sleep.
Tithonus
o Zeus grants Eos’s wish that Tithonus could have eternal life. He never dies, but continually gets older and older, instead of staying young.
Cronus + Rhea
Parents or Grandparents of the Olympian Gods (parents of Hestia, Demeter, Poseidon, Hera, Hades, and Zeus)
Cyclopes
Hectonchires
Cronus against Uranus
Uranus stuffs his and Gaea’s children back into her. He imprisons the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires in Tartarus. Cronus and his mother plot to stop Uranus from harassing her. Gaea gives Cronus a sickle and he cuts off Uranus’s testicles. This causes the separation of Earth and Sky.
Zeus vs. Cronus
Cronus swallows the newborn Olympians. Rhea delivers Zeus in Crete and hides him from Cronus by giving him a rock wrapped as a baby. Zeus is raised by nymphs. When Zeus is older, he tricks Cronus into drinking something to make him throw up and the gods are let out.
omphalos
Stone supposedly vomited from Cronus. Used at Delphi.
Titanomachy
Gods vs. Titans
After the Olympian gods are born, the other Titans attack. Only Themis and her son Prometheus side with the gods. Zeus rescues the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires from Tartarus and they help the Olympians defeat the Titans. He casts the Titans into Tartarus. Atlas is given special punishment to hold up the world.
Zeus vs. Typhoeus
Zeus has to defeat the son of Gaea and Tartarus
Metis
Athena’s mother. She is prophesied to bear a child that could usurp Zeus. He swallows her.
Athena’s birth
After swallowing Metis, Zeus has a terrible headache and with the help of Prometheus or Hephaestus he cracks open his head and out jumps Athena, fully grown.
Gigantomachy
Gods vs. Giants
The Giants are pushed by Gaea to attack the gods. Heracles fought although he was not born yet (?). Zeus is finally the uncontested god.
Mythic Geography
Olympus- topmost and home of 12 gods
Earth
Tartarus “deep darkness”
Earth’s Division
Zeus- heavens
Poseidon- sea
Hades- underworld, dark mist at world’s end, and land of the dead
Conflicting traditions of the origins of humans
1. Came from Zeus
2. Came from Zeus and other gods
3. Everything appeared out of the same source
4. Prometheus the 2nd generation Titan created man
5. Philosophy- Plato (classical period), love plays a part in human origins
Prometheus
“forelearner” a Titan (son of a Titan)
He is equivalent to a folklore character. He is a trickster who likes outwitting the powerful.o He made humans from water and Earth from which they receive their divine seed. He loves humans where other gods do not. He civilizes humans by giving them mathematics, astronomy, medicine; building, seafaring, and harnessing skills; a writing and calendar system; prophecy; and metallurgy.
at Mecone
 To determine how humans should sacrifice, Prometheus offered sacrificial bundles to Zeus. He concealed the bones and organs in fat, and made the good meat look unappealing. Zeus chose the useless meat and the precedent was set.
etiological myth
explains why something is
Prometheus and Fire
 Zeus punishes humans by removing fire from the trees. Prometheus sneaks fire back to man in a fennel stalk, but now humans must work for fire. Zeus punishes Prometheus by tying him to a pillar at the eastern end of the Black Sea (Caucasus Mountains), where eagles eat his liver by day and it grows back at night. Released after he gives Zeus the name of a woman who could bear a child greater than him.
Thetis
A nymph who will bear a son greater than his father. Zeus marries her off to Peleus and they bear Achilles
Pandora
“all-gift” or “all-giving” God’s punishment to man is the first woman. Each of the gods put a bit of their power into her. Her jar releases bad things into the world. Hope remains in the jar.
Why do men suffer?
Zeus’s punishment with Pandora.

Built into the Mechanisms of Time

The Five Races of Men
In Hesiod, Works and Days
1. Golden Age
2. Silver Age
3. Bronze Age
4. Heroic Age
5. Iron Age
Hesiod
Works and Days
Golden Age of Men
Cronus ruled
Men lived like gods
Dying was like passing into a dream
Remained as spirits on the earth like guardian angels
Silver Age of Men
Dumber than the Golden Age
Lived with their mothers for 100 years
Violent
Killed by the gods for being irreverent
Became spirits in the earth when they died
Bronze Age of Men
Bronze equipped warriors that came from ash trees
Killed each other
Heroic Age of Men
Legendary heroes of Homer
Better age than before
Temporary interruption of decline
Iron Age of Men
“Current” age (archaic period)
Justice is gradually being abandoned
Greek Flood Story
In Ovid (1st c. BC) not Hesiod
Zeus investigates the wickedness of mankind by disguising himself as a human and going to the kingdom of Arcadia and the King Lycaon “wolf”. He gave clues that he was divine, by Lycaon tests him by cooking a prisoner and serving him as dinner. Zeus knows and is very angry and turns Lycaon into a wolf (lycanthropy). Zeus resolves to punish wicked mankind and decides to use a flood since fire could scorch the heavens. Only Deucalion (son of Prometheus) and Pyrrha (daughter of Epimetheus) survive. They land on Mt. Parnassus (Delphi) near a temple to Themis (the Titan). Zeus relents and lets the flood recede. They are faced with the task of repopulating the earth and they receive a message from the gods saying, “Toss the bones of your mighty mother over your shoulder.” Deucalion solves the riddle and they throw stones over their shoulders which became men and women.
Lycaon
King of Arcadia who boils a prisoner to test Zeus and is turned into a wolf and brings about the Great Flood.

Also the father of Callisto.

Deucalion
Son of Prometheus who survives the flood with his wife Pyrrha. Solves the riddle of “Toss the bones of your mighty mother over your shoulder.” He recreates men while his wife creates women.
Pyrrha
Daughter of Epimetheus. Helps Deucalion repopulate the world by throwing stones over her shoulder to create women.
Deucalion + Pyrrha
Hellen “Hellenes” Son who was the father of the Greek race. His sons included Dorus (Dorians) and Aeolus (Aeolians) and his grandson was Ion (Ionians).
Olympian Gods (usually 12)
Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, Hades (all sons or daughter of Cronus and Rhea)
also Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Hermes, Athena, Hephaestus, and Dionysus
Zeus
King and brother or father of the gods.
King of the sky, and the weather and rain. He is the lord, but can still be fooled or cheated, though he has the final say.
Zeus’s weapons
aegis “goat skin” symbol of his power that inspired fear.
Thunderbolts- used them to defeat enemies. Where lightning struck, Greeks would build a shrine to Zeus.
Zeus’s Animals
Bulls- immensely powerful and fertile
Eagles- association with sky
Zeus’s Social Responsibility
Law and Justice
Preserving customs and relationship between the guest and host.
Themis
Mother of the Horae (Seasons) and Moerae (Fates) (+ Zeus)
Eurynome
Mother of the Graces (+ Zeus)
Mnemosyne
Mother of the Muses (+ Zeus)
Dione
Aphrodite sometimes Aprodite’s mother (+ Zeus)
Demeter
Mother of Persephone(+ Zeus)
Leto
Mother of Artemis and Apollo (+ Zeus)
Ganymede
Zeus also had relationships with young men. He fell in love with Ganymede, a Prince of Troy, and took him to Mt. Olympus where he remained as cupbearer to the gods. This shows young men in the same light as ancient Greece, and Ganymede fills the same role as the young men of the symposium.
Hera
The sister and wife of Zeus who presides over the household and is jealous of Zeus’s relationships.

Goddess of marriage and woman’s fertility.

Hera’s animal
cow
called “cow-eyed”
Roman Name of Zeus
Jupiter
Roman Name of Hera
Juno
Roman Name of Poseidon
Neptune
Roman Name of Hades
Pluto
Roman Name of Athena
Minerva
Roman Name of Apollo
Apollo
Roman Name of Artemis
Diana
Roman Name of Aphrodite
Venus
Roman Name of Hermes
Mercury
Roman Name of Ares
Mars
Roman Name of Hephaestus
Vulcan
Roman Name of Hestia
Vesta
Roman Name of Eros
Cupid
Roman Name of Demeter
Ceres
Roman Name of Dionysus
Bacchus
Roman Name of Pan
Innus or Faunnus
Names for Athena
Called Pallas and glaukopis- “owl-eyed”
Athena
Goddess of the Crafts of Civilization and War, presides over women’s skills and practical knowledge, and is the protector of cities.
Associations of Athena
Helmet
owl
shield with Gorgon
She supports male things in the world, and is the protectress of male heroes.
snake
aegis breastplate
The Parthenon
Temple to Athena that held the wealth of Athens in her statue.
Pediments tell the story of Athena’s birth and the contest with Poseidon.
Frieze shows procession to her most sacred statue (a wooden one) to dress it.
The base of the statue showed the story of Pandora
Panathenaic Amphora
winners got a jar of olive oil
Arachne
From Ovid’s Metamorphoses
Girl from Lydia who challenged Athena to a weaving contest. Athena disguised herself and allowed her to take back the challenge, but Arachne refuses and Athena reveals herself. Athena weaves stories of the mortals who challenge the gods. Arachne wove stories of the corruption of the gods. Athena beats her with her loom, Arachne tries to hang herself and is turned into a spider.
Aphrodite
Goddess of sexual love
Aphrodite’s Associations
swans and doves
Temple Prostitutes
Practiced in Corinthian temples to Aphrodite had temple prostitutes that would allow a “virgin sacrifice” without killing a virgin.
Aphrodite’s Husband
Hephaestus. Kind of a beauty and the beast story.
Aphrodite’s Parents
Either born from the genitals of Uranus and sea foam, or daughter of Zeus and Dione.
Praxiteles
First nude statue of a woman. of Aphrodite.
Eros
Son of Aphrodite and Ares. Carries arrows that can attract or repel. Ideal Greek young male.
Hermaphroditus
Son of Aphrodite and Hermes

Salmacis, a nymph, loved him, yet he did not love her. She prayed to Zeus that they could be one forever so they were fused into a half male half female being.

Salmacis
Nymph who loved Hermaphroditus
Priapus
Son of Aphrodite with either Dionysus or Hermes. An Asian Garden Deity and is associated with prosperity and is always shown with an erection.
Aeneas
Son of Aphrodite and Anchises
Zeus decides to punish Aphrodite by turning her power against her. She falls in love with Anchises a Prince of Troy (very handsome man). She tells him Hermes sent her to be his wife and reveals herself to him and she’s pregnant. She sends the baby Aeneas to nymphs to raise and they will return it to Anchises at age 5. She makes Anchises swear to never tell that it is her child and much later, when he does, he is lamed by Zeus’s thunderbolt. Aeneas is the forefather of Rome. Because of them, Aphrodite is loyal to the Trojans during the war.
Pigmalion
Took place in Cyprus. o He wanted a wife but felt that the local women were too promiscuous so he carved a statue that he fell in love with, Galatea. He treats her as his wife. He prays to Aphrodite for a woman like her and flames shoot up from Aphrodite’s altar three times. He goes home and touches Galatea and she turns into a woman.
Galatea
Pigmalion’s wife who was a statue. Mother of Paphos, grandmother of Cinyras, and great grandmother of Myrrah.
Paphos
eponymous hero of the capital of Cyprus. (grandson of Aphrodite)
Cinyras
Son of Paphos- foremother is Aphrodite.
HIs wife claims her daughter is more beautiful than Aphrodite. She causes her father to not recognize his daughter and for them to sleep together. When he finds out he runs after her to kill her. Aphrodite turns her into a myrrh tree. Her tears are the resin and are burned on Aphrodite’s altar.
Myrrah
Cinyras’s daughter. Turned into a myrrh tree after seducing her father and running from him when he attempted to kill her.
Adonis
Born from a myrrh tree. had a cult to him.
Artemis
Goddess of wild animals and the hunt.
As far back as the Bronze Age.
Artemis’s Contradictions
Protects women at the wild time of life.
Goddess of hunting and wild things – protects small animals
Virgin goddess of childbirth (helped with Apollo’s birth)
Sudden death in childbirth is being struck by Artemis’s arrows
Artemis’s Associations
the bow and arrow
forests
constellations
Artemis’s Places
Ephesus – her temple was one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World.

Her statue there is unusual as it is not lifelike. Has either eggs or breasts or bulls testicles on the chest.

Orion
o He was a hunter and the son of Poseidon. He could walk on water. He was blinded by a man for raping his daughter, and walked toward the east with a boy on his shoulders and the sun cured him. He failed to find the man who blinded him. He either tried to rape Artemis or had an affair with Eos, so Artemis put a scorpion on his head that killed him. Explains the two constellations Orion and Scorpio.
Callisto
A virgin follower of Artemis, and daughter of Lycaon. Zeus raped her and she became pregnant. Artemis gets angry because she is no longer a virgin. Turns her into a bear and kills her, but the baby bear Arcas survives. She makes them into Ursa Major and Minor.
Actaeon
o A Thebian Prince, he was out hunting and stumbled upon Artemis bathing. She turns him into a dear, his hunting dogs smell him and kill him.
Potnia Theron
Artemis “the mistress of the animals”
Niobe
Queen of Thebes claimed she was the greatest mother, even better than Leto. Artemis and Apollo take offence and kill her 12 children so she can no longer boast. Niobe is turned into a stone (actually a statue of a goddess that nobody could remember).
Dionysus
God of wine and Life force (sap) – body fluids, and male fertility.
Dionysus’s Associations
Panthers and leopards
Madness
Drama (ekstasis “standing outside oneself”)
Most of the info on Dionysus comes from Euripides’s play the Bacchae
Thyrsus
staff that often has a pinecone on top, Dionysus uses it to kill people
Kantharos
wine container Dionysus carries
xenia
reciprocal bonds of hospitality
Hera’s Associations
peacock, Argos, marriage, Heraeum
Amphitrite
Wife of Poseidon, mother of Triton

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