Classics 40 Studyguide

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Where is Hesiod from? When did he write his poetry? What kind of poetry (i.e. which genre of poetry) does Hesiod write?
Askra (Greece), 650 and 750 b.c., didactic
To whom is Hesiod telling his story? What is this person’s name and this person’s relationship to Hesiod?
his brother Perses
When is Strife good? When is it bad?

good when competiton, bad when war

(Eris)

In what does Prometheus hid fire when stealing it from the gods to give to humans?
 giant fennel stalk
Who creates Pandora? For what purpose is she created?
Zeus had Hephaestus make her out of the earth as part of punishment for stealing the fire, Aphrodite makes her charming
Name the five races of mortals. How are each of them characterized in the Works and Days?

Golden age- all is well, humans mingle with gods, Chronos is ruler

Silver age- men live under the control of others, then become spirits, Zeus is ruler

Bronze age- hard age, war, ends with flood

Heroic age- men live with noble heroes and go to Elysium when they die

Iron age- hesiod says he lives in, men live in toil and misery, gods have forsaken humanity

Which race does Hesiod say he lives?
Iron Age
What, according to Hesiod, should mankind do to stay honest and on the right path?

Be just

Think for yourself

Listen to good advice

Work

Sacrifice to the Gods

Where is Hesiod’s father from? In what place in the Greek lands does he settle?
Kyme in Aeolis, settled in Askra
According to Hesiod, at what age should men and women marry?
Thirty plus or minus two years
What kind of girl should a man aim to marry?
virgin, 5 years past puberty
Where does Hesiod say one should not urinate?
when facing the sun
Hesiod begins his work Theogony with an invocation to whom (which dieties)?
Helikonian muses
What does Theogony mean?
geneology of a group or system of Gods
Who/what are the first deities/elements to come into being in Hesiod’s account of the beginning of the world?
Chaos, Gaia (mother earth), Tartaros (underworld), Eros (exoctic desire)
Gaia mates with whom to give birth to the Titans?
her son Ouranos
Who is the father of Kronos? Why does Kronos castrate him?
Ouranos, he is shoving the titans back into Gaia
Who rises out of the foam surrounding the castrated testicles of Kronos’ father?
Aphrodite
Who is Nereus? How many daughters does he have?
Old man of the sea, fifty daughters
What is a Pegasus? Where does he come from (i.e. how did he come to be)?
a winged horse from the severed head of Medusa who was killed by Perseus
What is Kerberos? Where does he come from (i.e. how did he come to be)?

multi-headed monster dog of Hades, lives in the underworld

offspring of;Echidna (half woman, half serpent) and; Typhon (fire-breathing giant)

What is Chimaira? Where does this monster come from?
fire breathing female monster with the upper body of a lioness, head of a goat, with a tail ending in a snake’s head
Does Hesiod portray the goddess Hekate favorably or unfavorably?
favorably; goddess of magic, witchcraft, and crossroads
Who is the mate of Kronos? What does Kronos do to his own children?
Rhea; Kronos swallows his children as they are born
Why is Zeus born and raised on Crete?
so he doesn’t get swallowed by Kronos
Why does Kronos not suspect that Zeus will get revenge on him for his siblings?
Kronos thinks he swallowed Zeus
Who releases slays the eagle eating Prometheus’ liver, thereby freeing the Titan?
Hercules
What happened at Mekone that led to Prometheus’ punishment?
he taught the mortals the trick of sacrifice (two piles, one with fat and bones, and other with meat)
Prometheus’ second offence against the gods was stealing fire from Mount Olympus. What punishment do the gods devise for this crime?

bound him to a rock with eagle eating his liver

MANKIND’S PUNISHMENT-;Pandora with;jar of evils and hope;

What is the name of the great battle fought between the Titans andthe Olympian gods?
War of the Titans
What weapon does Zeus employ against the Titans?
thunder and lightning
Where do the majority of the Titans dwell after the battle between the Titans and the Olympian gods?
Tartaros, dark dungeon-like place beneath the underwold
Who is Typhoeus? Where does he come from?
most deadly monster, father of all monsters, last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartaros
Who is Metis? What happens to her?; Why is she so important?
Metis means cunning wisdom, she is Zeus’ first wife but he swallows her to prevent their child from overthrowing him, but Athena is born from Zeus’ head
Which three children are born fromt he union of Zeus and Hera?

Ares (god of war)

Hebe (goddess of youth)

Eris (goddess of discord)

;Eileithyia;(goddess of childbirth)

Which two children’s briths are the last ones described in the Theogony? Who are their parents?
Nausithoos, Nausinous and Odysseus and Kalypso are their parents
Whose head appears on the aegis Zeus (and Athena) wear?
Medussa’s head
What is the name of Demeter’s daughter?
Persephone
Who granted a marriage between the daughter of Demeter and Hades?
Zeus
Which two deities did Demeter consult for information regarding her daughter?
Helios and Hekate
To which city did the grieving Demeter go?
Eleusis
What function occupation does Demeter hold at the palace?
maid/nurse for Demophoon
How does lambe get Demeter to forget her grief for a moment and laugh?
tells jokes an jests
Who is Demophoon? What does Demeter attempt to do to him?

Metaneira’s son

Make him immortal

What does Dmeter demand the people of the city do when she is disrespected?
build an altar and great temple below the town on the well kallichoron
How does Demeter punish everyone on earth for her sorrow?
no harvest for men
Why are the gods unhappy with Demeter’s actions?
no haversts which meant no sacrifice for gods
Whom does Zeus send to tell Hades he must return Demeter’s daughter?
Hermes
Why must Demeter’s daughter spend a third of the year in the underworld? What is her role there? What does this explain?
ate a pomegranate seed, becomes queen of the underworld, explains the seasons
What is Demeter the goddess of? For what purpose might you pray to her?
fertility fo the earth and harvest, and also marriage
Where would you go to celebrate the rites of Demeter?
Eleusis
Who is the husband of Persephone?
Hades
Who are the parents of Apollon? Who is his sister (by the same parents)?

Zeus and Leto

Artemis by the same parents

Where was Apollon born? Why was his mother forced to give birth to him at this place?

floating island of Delos

Hera was jealous and banned her from giving birth on firm ground

Whom did Hera restrain from being present when Apollon’s mother gave birth? What kind of deit is this (i.e. what does she represent/offer)?
Ilithyia, goddess of fertility
Whom did the other goddesses send to bring back this diety to Apollon’s mother?
Iris
Clinging to which tree did Apollon’s mother give birth?
palm tree
Which two instruments does the newly born Apollon proclaim he wants to hold and use?
lyre and bow
Who is Telphousa? What does she prevent Apollon from doing?
daughter of Ladon (the serpent dragon), she tells Apollo not to build his temple in Delphi
Whom does Hera bear on her own to be a child who will be stronger than her husband Zeus?
Hephastus because she is jealous Zeus gave brith to Athena
To whom/what did Hera entrust Typhoan? what happened to this protector?
To a serpent dragoness that Apollo kills (Pytho)
What does Apollon finally do to Telphousa?
builds a temple at Delphi and puts rocks in teh stream because he is mad at Telphosa for sending him to the serpent
How did Apollon gather people to populate his new sacred alnd and to celebrate his rites?
he takes a ship of sailors
Into what animal does Apollon metamorphose?
dolphin
Where is the oracle of Apollon located?
Delphi
Who verbally delivers the oracle of Apollon? Is this person a man or woman?
Pythia, woman
What monster did Apollon slay at the places that holds his main temple and oracular center?
Python
What are some characteristics or attributes of Apollon? What concerns him? What are his interests? How might you see him depicted in art?

patron god of music and poetry (carried lyre)

in art has laurel wreath, python, raven, bows and arrows

Who are the parents of Hermes?
Zeus and Maia
At the beginning of the poem, what kind of child/god does the poet say Hermes’ mother bore?
nymph
What did Hermes do to the tortise he encountered on the mountain?
turned it into a lyre
Whose cattle did Hermes steal? How did he do this? Why would no one suspect him of doing this?

Apollo’s

leads heard backward to cover hoof prints

Warned by his mother that he shouldn’t be a little thiever, Hermes then threatens to do what to the god from whom he stold the cattle?
steal gold and possesions from Apollo’s home
To whom do Hermes and the god from which he stole cattle go to settle the issue? How was the issue settled?

Zeus on mount Olypus

makes hermes lead Apollo to cattle

How did Hermes sooth the god from whom he stole the cattle?
played the lyre for Apollo
What invention of his own did Hermes show the god and then gift to the god from whom he stole the cattle?
lyre
Upon receiving the invention, what did the god place in Hermes’ hand and what function did he command him to perform?
whip to guide/ herd the cattle
What are some characteristics or attributes of Hermes? What concerns him? What roles doe he perform? What are his interests? How might you see him depicted in art? What does he hold in his hand to lead people? What does he wear on his feet, his head, his back?

he is clever, deceptive, and not honest

wants to be praised by the gods

likes to play the lyre

holds whip, winged sandals, and helmet with wings

Why does Hermes have the epithet (i.e. a sort of nickname) Argeiphontes?
 he kills Argus (hundred eyed giant)
Despite having the power to affect Zeus with her ability to incite erotic desire, over which three goddesses does Aphrodite have no power?

Athena- warrior/government

Artemis- hunter

Hestia- virgin forever

Who places in Aphrodite’s soul the desire to sleep with a mortal man?
Zeus
With whom does Aphrodite fall in love? Where does she see him?
Anchises, on mount Ida
After seeing the mortal she desires to sleep with, Aphrodite rushes to her temple in which city to have which deities bathe and anoint her?
Cyprus
What does the mortal man, with whom Aphrodite desires to sleep, do in the location she finds him? What are his occupations? What does he spend time doing?
he plays the lyre and tends to cattle
The mortal suspects she is a goddess. How does Aphrodite respond to this?
She lies and gives a story explaining she is a mortal, raised in Phyrgia (princess)
Who is born from the sexual union between Aphrodite and the mortal man?
Aineias in Iliad
Aphrodite cites several deities who’ve slept with mortals. Which mortal does she say Zeus mated with? and Eos? What happened to these mortal loves?

Zeus mated with Ganymede

Eos mated with Tithonos

they were granted wishes and immortality

What threat does Aphrodite launch against her mortal love if he should ever tell another mortal that the slept with a goddess?
castration
Where was Aphrodite born?
the sea foam from Ouranos, near cyprus
How might you see Aphrodite depicted in art? Why is she often accompanied by the figure of Eros?
Eros is the god of exotic love
Who are the parents of Dionysos?
Semele and Zeus
What does Dionysos look like? What does he wear?
young man, dark hair, purple cape
Why is it interesting that the poet calls the sea “wine dark” in reference to Dionysos?
symbolizes anger and wrath
Who did the Tyrsenian priate think Dionysos was? Who was the only person among the priates to suspect he was a god?

 suspected the Dionysus was a prince

helmsman

What happens when the priates try to shackle Dionysos? What happens to Dionysos? What happens to the ship? What happens to the pirates?
shackles fall off Dionysos, he turns into a lion, the hsip becomes covered in grape vines and the pirates turn into dolphins
Who is the only person on the ship spared by Dionysos? Why?
Helmsman for recognizing Dionysos was a god
Which greek city is Dionysos’ mother from? Who is his mother? What happened to her?
Semele died when she saw Zeus true identity, she is from
How was Dionysos born?
;out of Zeus’ thigh
Who is Pentheus? What is his relationship to Dionysos? What happened to him?
king of Thebes, cousin, killed by mother
What is ecstacy in relation to Dionysos?
Dionysos controls it and is the god of it
What does Dionysus hold in his hand as he leads his followers?
fennel staffed tipped with a pine cone
Who, specifically, are Dionysos’ followers? Who might you see in art or read described following him in a procession?
meanads, wild female followers
Who does Dionysos marry?
Ariadne (helps him escape labryinth with yard from minotaur)
What are some characteristics or attributes of Dionysos? What concerns him? What roles does he perform? What are his interests? How might you see him depicted in art?
god of ecstacy, the grape vine, revelry and ecstacy, vines
Who is Artemis’ mother? Father? Brother?

Leto

Zeus

Apollo

What weapon is Artemis often described as carrying?
bow and arrow
Over what is Artermis protectress?

wilderness/forests and animals

Godess of the hunt

Who is Hestia’s father?
Kronos

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