Classics 329 final exam

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Horace Walpole


Def- Prominent figure in politics and the arts in Englad

  1. Produced more radical forms of the earliest non-classical manifesations of Romanticism
  2. Spent 25 years enlarging and Gothicizing a small villa named Strawberry Hill
  3. Wrote the Castle of Otronto, the first Gothic novel

Louis Sullivan 


Def- American architect who has been called “father of modernism”

  1. Considered by many as the creatir of modern skyskraper
  2. Influential architect and critic of Chicago School and a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright
  3. Built the Wainwright building

Wainwright Building


Def- Office ahistorical building located in St. Lous, built by Louis Sullivan

  1. one of the first skyscrapers in the world
  2. made of iron, steel, glass, reinforced concrete
  3. built before the zoning setback ordinance

Hermann Muthesius


Def- German architect who became an early defender of standardization

  1. Excited by the possibility of iron, steel, concrete, and glass
  2. sent to london by the prussian board of trade to study british architecture
  3. controlled who was appointed to major art schools

Frank Lloyd Wright


Def- american architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher

  1. lived in Oak Park, Illinois
  2. designed more than 1000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works
  3. ex.-the Robbie House

Walter Gropius


Def- german architect and founder of the Bauhaus

  1. regarded as pioneering master of “modern” architecture
  2. studied in Munich about the same time as Fritz Lang
  3. favored low cost, mass produced housing



Def- Germany’s school of design and visual arts

  1. founded with high hopes to house the poor after WW1
  2. Founders rejected traditional art and architecture
  3. German version of the international style centered on Bauhaus

Le Corbusier


Def-;:Swiss-born architect Charles-EdouardJeanneret (aka Le Cor;busiet) that is best known for his International style.

  1. Career spanned 5 centuries;
  2. Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities
  3. Became a French citizen in his 30s

Tony Pastor


Def- American impresario

  1. Sought to change American entertainment into a wholesome industry
  2. Became owner of the Bowery Theater and popularized Vaudeville
  3. Discovered one of our first great vaudeville superstars, Lillian Russell

BF Keith


Def- American vaudeville theater owner

  1. first to use the term vaudeville
  2. made vaudeville a big monopoly business
  3. was a grifter, conned people out of their money

Carl Laemmle 

Def- German filmmaker who immigrated to America in 1884

  1. started his career i films by buying nickelodeon
  2. founded universal pictures in 1914
  3. used kammerspiele lighting and psychic acoustics


Max Reinhardt


Def- director and actor who became head of the german theater from 1907-1919

  1. Created kammerspiele in 1906
  2. experiments with sharp contrast of light and shade
  3. pioneer of psychic acoustics

Fritz Lang


Def- viennese director who produced Metropolis in 1926

  1. studied architecture in techincal school at Vienna
  2. served in WW1
  3. his films have recurring themes such as exotic locales, secret organizations and underdogs

Alfred Hitchock


Def- British director and producer

  1. famous for many films such as pyscho, suspicion, The Birds
  2. used pure cinema in his movies
  3. some elements of his dialectic include original sin, objective sin, and gradual slide into chaos

Larry David


Def- writer for Seinfeld and Curb your Enthusiasm

  1. influenced by surrealism
  2. uses crisscrossing, pbject power, parallel universe
  3. uses objects to create paradoxical constructs

Bert Williams


Def- Black monologist in blackface

  1. first major star to cross color line to white stage
  2. was from Jamaica and told long, slow stories tthat often had a punch line at the end
  3. pressure of performing as a black man in a white mans industry (criticism) led to early death

Julian Eltinge


Def- famous cross dresser of the 1920s

  1. would imitate Lillian Russell and at one time had his own cosmetic line for women
  2. had his own Eltinge theater
  3. Starred in Madame Behave (1925)

The Dolly Sisters

(1892-(Jenny 1933)(Rose 1970))

Def- began to emerge in early 1910s as a canon for beauty

  1. Wore short hair, pioneered the idea of slenderizing
  2. toured with the Ziegfeld Follies
  3. helped to facilitate the emancipation of women through their public partying

Florence Ziegfeld and the Ziefeld Follies


Def- series of elaborate productions led by Florence Ziegfeld

  1. makes vaudeville bigger by bringing in sexier women
  2. glorifies the american girl
  3. able to use nudity in his entertainment through the living tableau

Jacques Tati


Def- French pantomimist and Surreal filmmaker of the 1950s and 1960s

  1. model for Michael Richards
  2. wore a mantle coat draped over shoulers and often carried a pipe
  3. performed physical comedy through his body posture as well as prop comedy with rugs and paintings

The Duncan Sisters


Def- First great female comedy team

  1. Became popular with their act “topsy and eva”
  2. influence Lucille Ball and I Love Lucy
  3. broke the traditional mold for women in entertainment

The Beatles


Def- English rock band and one of the most commercially successful rock bands in the history of music

  1. One of their most well known songs was Yellow Submarine
  2. Influenced by psychedelics and the experiments of Timothy Leary
  3. Also influenced by pop art, op art, and surrealism

Loreena McKennitt


Def- conemporary Canadien Celtic Romantic musician

  1. Also a anthropological folk singer
  2. influenced by the pre-Rapaelite movement
  3. Also influenced by Sufism and the idea that can achieve oneness through contemplation and nature worship

Bill “Bojangles” Robinson


Def- African American tap dancer and actor

  1. Raised by his Grandmother, who was a slave
  2. Before he was a dancer, he shelled peas
  3. He was a prop dancer

Anna Palova


Def- Russian popularizer of Ballet across the world

  1. Became famous for dancing in swan lake
  2. Wore extra supports in her shoes because of fear of getting feet injuries
  3. dies, still dancing, at the age of 49

Busby Berkley


Def- American diretor and choreographer

  1. designed dance numbers heavily influenced by geometric patterns and beautiful girls
  2. played a role in establishing the movie musical as its own genre
  3. got his ideas by drinking until he hallucinated

Fred Astaire


Def- Considered the greatest and most influential partnered dancer of the 20th cent.

  1. symbol of the streamlined depression modern movement
  2. danced with Ginger Rogers and Vera Ellen
  3. Retired twice but returned both times

Ray Bolger


Def- an american eccentric dancer

  1. played the scarecrow in Wizard of Oz
  2. famous for leg muscle control and incredible splits
  3. called a rubber leg dancer

Hal Leroy


Def- American dancer famous for his legomania style of dancing

  1. one of the few non-blacks admitted to Harlem Hoofer’s Club
  2. Admired by Bojangles
  3. had unusually long legs that could bend in odd ways

Ginger Rogers


Def- American actress, dancer, and singer

  1. Performed in Tucson, at the Realto theater when she was 16
  2. embarked on a solo career in the 1940s
  3. Partnered with Fred Astaire for a large portion of her career

Nicholas Brothers

Fayard(1914-2006) Harold(1921-2000)

Def- African American brothers who became famous flash dancers

  1. Belonged to the Horn and Hardart’s Children Hour
  2. Used a lot of arm and leg movement as well as a lot of ballet and acrobatic moves
  3. danced on Bakelite floors

Vera Ellen


Def- American dancer and also an actress and singer

  1. Partnered with Fred Astaire, Gene Kelley, and Donal O’Connor
  2. in Belle of New York, On the Town, White Christmas
  3. known for having the “smallest waist in Hollywood”

Gustave Moreau


Def- the leader of the Symbolist movement in France.

  1. Unreal light transports the galatea into realm of imagination
  2. painted “Orpheus” (1865), which had a woman gazing at the decapitated head of the musician Orpheus.
  3. Painted gallatea 1880-1881

Paul Gaugin


Def- Leading Post- Impressionist painter

  1. Lived with Van Gogh, followed him with a knife
  2. Inlfuential exponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms
  3. Bold experimentation with coloring led directly to Synthestist style of modern art

Joseph Peladen

Not much emphasis in lectures


Def- Pioneer of the symbolist movement

  1. Dressed in the finest most delicate clothing
  2. Believed in being the most elegant individual that you could be
  3. Believed in the search for a higher reality called logos

Fernand Khnopff

Not much emphasis in lectures


Def- Belgian symbolist

  1. Believed in self worship and even had an alter for himself
  2. Believed women were neccessary to inspire you, but were dangerous
  3. Painted the Caresses of the Sphinx

Edvard Munch


Def- Norwegian Expressionist painter

  1. Painted The Scream
  2. Played a significant role in the development of German Expressionist cinema
  3. Influenced by Van Gogh and his father

Wassily Kandinsky


Def- Russian artist who usually didn’t give titles to his work

  1. Took expressionism away from reality entirely
  2. Influences artists such as Jackson Pollock
  3. Would become overwhelmed with emotion and would slab color on the canvas

Piet Mondrian


Def- An important contributor to the De Stijl art movement

  1. Started Neo-Plasticism
  2. Made the “Broadway Boogie Woogie” 1942
  3. Consisted of a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and use of 3 primary colors

Marcel Duchamp


Def-  French Dada artist

  1. 1 of the most influential figures in modern art
  2. experimented with lots of types of art
  3. created “Bicycle Wheel” 1913

Giorgio De Chirico


Def- Greek-Italian and a real founder of the surreallist movement

  1. Creates what he calls metaphysical painting, a painting that seems to take place in a parallel universe
  2. paints figues so that they almost seem to be part of the landscape
  3. has an enormous influence on people like Alfred Hitchcock

Rene Magritte


Def- Belgian surrealist artist

  1. used strange juxtapositions
  2. individual images are realistic, often creating an illusion
  3. objects are only possible in dream worlds

Jean Delville


Def- Belgian symbolist

  1. obsessed with ancient Greek and Rome
  2. Painted Orpheus
  3. Uses a lot of blue in paintings because it symbolizes dreams

Salvador Dali


Def- Spanish Surrealist artist

  1. tried to represent the unconscious with extreme realism
  2. used paranoic-critical method
  3. used many neuroses to create art

Roy Lichtenstein


Def- American pop artist

  1. had a distinctive comic book style
  2. created the balloons in comics
  3. described pop art as “not American but actually industril”

Jasper Johns


Def- American pop artist

  1. Painted three flags 1954
  2. used encaustic methods
  3. sometimes called a “Neo-Dadaist”

Andy Warhol


Def- American pop artist

  1. Worked as a commercial illustrator before becoming a painter
  2. obssessed with mass production
  3. had a flair for multimedia events and self promotion

Heinrich Schliemann


Def- First person to popularize archeology

  1. Claimed to be the discoverer of Troy
  2. made important contributions to the discipline of archeology
  3. irrationally reasoned that most important settlements would be further down in mound and destroyed a lot in the process

Frank Calvert


Def- true discoverer of Troy

  1. convinced that a mound in Turkey was site of Homer’s stories and bought a portion of that land to begin excavating
  2. formed a partnership with Heinrich
  3. honest man and refused to announce discovery of Troy without solid evidence

Fred Stone


Def- one of the great forgotten pioneers of eccentric dance and visual comedy

  1. became a star in 1902 when Wizard of Oz opened in Chicago
  2. starred in Under the Top
  3. was a renaissance performer that worked to make his act unique

Annette Kellerman


Def- inventor of the one piece womens swimsuit and a pioneer in the transformation of competitive diving

  1. known as the million dollar mermaid
  2. suffered from rickets as a child
  3. attempted to swim across the Enlgish channel 3 times but never finished

Raymond Loewy


Def- Pioneer of the industrial design

  1. believed the perfect form was the glider wing
  2. influence is seen in every aspect of American society like the Esso Gas Station
  3. designs that are popular from him are the womanly shape of coke bottles and portholes

J Robert Oppenheimer


Def- the man in charge of the manhattan project

  1. had a large lab in Las Alamos where he went on to develop the atomic bomb
  2. by 1949 he began to oppose the proliferation of atomic power
  3. eventually labeled a communist by joseph mccarthy

Edward R. Murrow


Def- a resistor to Joseph McCarthy and his blacklist

  1. also a liberal broadcaster who had great credibility
  2. is famous for saying “sir, have you no decency”
  3. didnt dispute that there were spies but claimed McCarthy had gone too far

Timothy Leary


Def- harvard psychologist and pioneer of the psychodelia movement

  1. experimented with LSD in what he called his psychodrama room
  2. decorated his psychodrama room with “melted” images
  3. also used lava lamps and played music that incorporated with eastern sounds

Gothic Revival


Def- architectual, artistic, and literary movement and is influenced by gothic medieval elements

  1. began in england
  2. Strawberry hill is example
  3. not to be confused with gothic movement from middle ages


(late 18th-19th cent.)

Prominent artistic, literary, and intellectual movement in Western Europe and U.S. 

  1. reaction to the age of enlightenment
  2. often depicted the struggle of the individual over the state
  3. “haunting nostalgia” for the past. depicted mysterious unexplained and possibly dangerous phenomena



Def- a specialty show with a series of acts and a presentation of different topics

  1. term “vaudeville” was originally used in France in 1815 and referred to a type of festival
  2. involved 15 acts that lasted 8-10 minutes
  3. most popular form of entertainment between 1880 and 1930


(19th century)

Def- cultural movement with its roots in France, where it was a very popular art form

  1. came about with the intro of photography
  2. represented real subject matter
  3. also referred to as heroic materialism


(1860s-early 20th cent.)

Def-more concerned with optical realism and the natural properties of light

  1. rarely responded to political events
  2. painters preferred genre subjects
  3. the term is derived from a critics negative view of Monet’s Impression Sunrise

Post- Impressionism 


Def- “After Impressionism” designates the work of certain nineteenth-century painters who were greatly influenced by impressionism

1.  used bright colors and visible distinctive brush strokes

2. used color to express emotion  

3. forms do not dissolve and there edges, wither outlined  or formed by share colors separations are relatively clear 



def- An artistic movement that combined expressive qualities of line and color with simplified or exaggerated depiction if reality. 

1. Perceive/Portray sensations trough color

2. Involves and admiration of the primitive trough saturation and color 

3. stretches reality into deformation

Symbolist Movement

(19th cent)

Def- began as a literary movement, emphasizing internal psychological phenomena

  1. strong in France and Belgium
  2. rejected both the social consciousness of Realism and the Impressionist interest in nature and the outdoors
  3. attracted instead by the internal world of the imagination and by images that portrayed the irrational

Analytical Cubism


Def- one of the 2 major branches of cubism 

  1. analyzed natural forms and reduced the forms to basic geometric parts on the 2 dimensional plane
  2. color was almost non-existent except for the use of  a monochromatic scheme 
  3. focused on forms like cylinders, sphere, and cones

Synthetic Cubism


Def- 2nd main branch of Cubism developed by Picasso, Braque, and Juan Gris

  1. was seen as the 1st time that collages were made as fine art
  2. more of a pushing several objects together
  3. has fewer planar shifts and less shading, creating flatter space



Def- an anti-art movement that began in Switzerland

  1. french for a child’s wooden horse
  2. rejected prevailing standards in art
  3. influenced surrealism



Def- artistic movement that started in the 1920’s and was influenced by Dada

  1. main characteristics included timelessness, sizelessness, airlessness
  2. included elements of surprise, strange juxtapositions
  3. focused on creation without conscious control

Art Deco


Def- movement that involved non-historical ornaments and the idea that people needed mordern ideas and images

  1. sumptuous materials- ivory inlay, laquered wood, chrome
  2. involves cubist and egyptian influences
  3. Rene Lalique and his day and night clock is an example

Modernistic Style


Def- involves machine reproductions of Deco patterns

  1. main characteristics include glitz and stylization
  2. mostly comprised of late 19th century buildings

Depression Modern Style


Def- movement that came about as a result of the great depression and was driven by the desire to create a simpler life

  1. characterized by streamline, simplified forms and curvilinear patterns
  2. Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers represent the depression modern style in dance
  3. Frank Lloyd Wright Johnson’s Wax Factory represents he depression modern style in architecture with its rounded desks


(20th century)

Def- tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect

  1. a leading painter is Edvard Munch
  2. many art forms like paintings, literature, theatre, film, music
  3. term often implies emotional angst and is applied mainly to 20th century works

OP Art


Def- genre of visual art, especially painting, that makes use of optical illusions

  1. also known as geometric abstraction and hard-edge abstraction
  2. impression on the viewer includes movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or of swelling or warping
  3. very popular and used commercially

Pop Art

(20th century)

Def- movement that began in Britain in the 1950’s and became popular in the U.S. in the 1960s

  1. reaction to abstract expressionism
  2. drew on popular culture for inspiration
  3. moved away from abstract forms, saw the return of the object


Universal Pictures
Gothic/Romanesque Set Designs
Frankenstein was written by Mary Shelley in 1818, while visiting a Switzerland castle where the guest took turns developing stories.


Bram Stoker
Universal Pictures
Gothic/Romanesque Set Designs
Universal Pictures horror films such as Dracula did very well during the early 1930’s.



First major star to break the color line and who danced with the Ziegfeld follies.


Ziegfeld Follies

Florenz Ziegfeld
Ziegfeld Follies glorified the American Girl and focused on stage pageantry. 


The Minstrel Shows

Beginning 1820s
Stage Entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music.


Nicholas Brothers

Fayard Nicholas 1914-2006 & Harold Nicholas 1921-2000
Their dance style combined flash dancing with acrobatic leaps and somersaults, ballet hand movements, and emphasized each step with dramatic arm


Bill “Bojangles” Robinson

Tap dancer
His dance style was characterized by clarity of steps, was slow placed plus he used the stairs and other props in his dance routines.


Vera Ellen

Musical Dancer
Vera-Ellen suffered from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or OCD, Anorexia Nervosa which contributed to her perfectionistic work ethic.
Vera-Ellen was an accomplished tap and ballet dancer, plus she partnered with such accomplished dancers as Danny Kaye, Fred Astaire, and Gene Kelly.


Clara Bow

The “It” Girl
“It” girls, were deemed the perfect woman of the 1920 by Cosmo Magazine. They were slim, brunette, exotic, used make up, and used stimulating and tantalizing words.


Chrysler Building

Construction started 1928 and completed 1930

Architect William Van Alen (1882-1954)
Art Deco
Iron, steel, glass, reinforced concrete


Art Deco Style

Origins 1925 International Exposition of Decorative Arts in Paris
:Art Deco was influenced by the Egyptian discovery of King Tutt’s tomb in 1922 and had many elements influenced by Egyptian and Cubist forms.
Sumptuous materials were common such as ivory inlay, gems, lacquered wood, and modern materials such as chrome.


Modernistic Style

American version of Art Deco that was used everywhere, i.e. home décor, building decoration, advertising 


Empire State Building

Raymond Shreve, William Lamb, Arthur Harmon Architects
Art Deco
The Empire State Building was symbol of the American Great Depression


Busby Berkley

American choreographer that used his daredevil and genus of dance design to develop 1930’s film fantasy.


Johnson Wax Factory

Frank Lloyd Wright
Depression Modern
Curvilinear forms in the design of the interior, i.e. the desk design is an example Depression Modern style that also advocated the use of streamlined forms, and blond materials.


Raymond Loewy

Depression Modern
Influential industrial designer from Paris who focused simplification and streamlining of form.
Lowey re-designed the Coca Cola Bottle after Mae West’s figure.


The Caresses of the Sphinx

FernandKhnopff (1858-1921)
Symbolist (literary and painterly)
Khnopff portrays the idea that woman will inspire you but then drain you… as the sphinx has her cheek against the man’s but her claws against his torso.




-Jean Delville



-The scene of Orpheus within the lyre in the painting looks peaceful, but  the background story is that women tore Orpheus apart, a representation of the Symbolist idea of the femme fatale as well as the symbol of death



(“She has a hot ass”)

Marcel Duchamp
Dada style


Melancholy and Mystery of a Street


DeChirico was considered to be the pioneer of Surrealism, although he did not consider himself to be a surrealist. He called himself a metaphysical painter.


Persistence of Memory

Salvador Dali
Surrealist style
Dali, one of the most famous surrealist painters, developed the Paranoiac-Critical Method of painting-a surrealist technique of optical illusions and ambiguous images.


Spirit of the Dead Watching

Paul Gauguin
Post-Impressionist style
Gauguin developed synthetism which distinguished his work from Impressionism.


Andy Warhol

Pop Art
Question social values
Pop art life style


Red, Blue and Green


Ellsworth Kelly
Color-Field Painting style
Prime example of how Kelly would explore Gauguin’s idea of using highly saturated intense color to form beautiful backgrounds


Target with 4 Faces

Jasper Johns
Color-Field/Pop Art
The use of hard edges, disciplined lines, color saturation of primary colors, geometric shapes is a prime example of John’s use of the atraditonal


Timothy Leary

1960s Pop Icon
Professor at Harvard University who had a laboratory of personality where he experimented with LSD


Allen Ginsberg

1960s Pop Icon
Poet who was one of the leaders of “The Beats,” a counterculture of people who dropped out of the main society.
Referred to himself as the “King of May”


Contemporary Romantic Music
Draws influence from the Pre-Raphaelite movement
Revives ancestry of French, British, Irish, Canadians.


The Scream

Edvard Munch
Post-Impressionist/Pre-Expressionist style
Prime example of Munch’s influence from Freud


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