Classics 10 Part 3

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Iole
After Heracles’ labours, he wants to marry Iole. Eurytus, father doesn’t want her to marry him because of Megara. Heracles hosts Iphitus (brother) and kills him, violating xenia.
Heracles at Delphi
He wants to atone for his mistake but Pythia is disgusted from seeing him. Heracles gets angry and breaks into temple to steal tripod. Apollo comes in and tries to take tripod back.
Heracles new service
Apollo makes Heracles serve women for three years.
Omphale
Buys Heracles as a love slave, makes him wear her clothes
Deianira
Wrestles Achelous. Heracles escortrs Deianara home across ferry. Hires centaur to take her home while he swims. Centaur assaults her so Heracles shoots him w/ poisoned arrow. Nessus gives Deianira blood as “love potion” for later.
Death of Heracles
Heracles seeks Iole for a sacrifice to Zeus. Deianara puts poison on Heracles clothes. When it touches Heracles skin, it kills him. Saddened, Deianara kills herself. He then ascends to Olympus to be with his new bride Hebe. Immortality is his reward for his service to mankind (greatest hero because he is greater than death).
Philoctetes
Lights Heracles’ pyre during his funeral. Given Heracles’ bow and arrows.
Heraclids
Descendants of Heracles. Hyllus, son of Deianara and Heracles kills Eurystheus and takes head to Alcmena.
Origin of Athenians
1) Descend from Athena.
2) Autochthonus (sprung from earth)
3) Descend from Cecrops
Erichthonius
Successor to Cecrops (man of wool and earth). After Hephaestus tries to rape Athena on Acropolis, she wipes away his ejaculate w/ wool and drops it on ground. Erichthonius springs up. Builds shine to Athena on Acropolis.
Arrhephoroi – festival of dew carriers
Daughters of Cecrops (Aglaurus, Herse, Pandrosus), given Erichthonius in a basket and told not to look inside. Aglaurus and Herse go mad and jump off Acropolis. Tradition – 2 girls would spend a year on the Acropolis. At the end, they would take a basket to the bottom of the Acropolis.
Procris and Cephalus
Mercury coats Herse, turns Aglaurus to stone, and Herse’s pregnant with son Cephalus. Cephalus marries Procris, daughter of Erichthonius. After Procris is caught in bed, she flees to Minos and is given Laelaps (dog who never misses prey) and spear that never misses mark. Reconciles with Cephalus. Procris ends up dying by Cephalus when she thought he was cheating on her with Aura.
Pandion
Son of Erichthonius. His son is Erichtheus. Pandion has two daughters Procne and Philomela.
Procne
Wife of Tereus, king of Thrace. Has son Itys.
Aegeus
Goes to Delphi to ask Oracle how to have a child but doesn’t understand the answer. Goes to Pittheus. Pittheus understands the riddle.
Pittheus
Understands Aegeus’ riddle. Gets him drunk and sends him to sleep with his daughter Aethra. Aethra then goes to the sea to make a sacrifice, where Poseidon rapes her.
Theseus
Has two fathers (Aegeus and Poseidon). Sets out for Athens and preforms 6 labors on his way. When he arrives in Athens, Aegeus doesn’t recognize him. Tells him to kill Cretan bull. When he recognizes sword, he realizes Theseus is his son. Theseus kills 50 sons of Pallas. Theseus then goes to Crete to kill the Minotaur. When he returns, his father thinks he died and jumps in the sea to die.
Periphetes the Clubber
Theseus bashes his head with Periphetes’ club.
Sinis the Pinebender
Theseus had him thrown by a tree and splits him in half.
Crommyonian sow and Phaea
Crommyonian sow (pig) slayed by Theseus.
Sciron
Compel travelers to wash his feet then kick them where a giant animal would eat them. Theseus kicks him down to be eaten.
Cercyon
Theseus wrestles and kills him.
Procrustes
Had a bed and would force travelers to fit exactly in the bed (idiom for bureaucracy (arbitrary Standard). Theseus sawed Procrustes to death.
Antiope
Queen of Amazons. Theseus kidnaps her. Amazons retaliate by invading Attica and setting up camp NW of Acropolis. Sacrifice to Ares becomes Hill of Ares.
Amazonomachy
Theseus and Athenians defeat them. Athenian victory over Persians.
Hippolytus
Son of Theseus and Antiope. Theseus later dismisses Antiope and marries Phaedra. Hippolytus denounces Aphrodite and becomes a follower of Artemis. Phaedra now lusts for Hippolytus.
Euripides Hippolytus
Phaedra wants Hippolytus. When he rejects her, he agrees not to tell anyone about it. Phaedra commits suicide but writes a note saying Hippolytus assaulted her. He refuses to say anything so Theseus curses him and Poseidon kills him.
Pirithous
King of Lapiths. Tries to steal Theseus’ cattle. They wrestle then become eternal friends. Invites Theseus and centaurs to his wedding, but centaurs get drunk and try to rape bride. Lapiths battle and win against centaurs. They decide to kidnap Helen to marry but she’s too young.
Persephone
Pirithous wants Persephone so they go to Hades for permission, who binds them to a chair. Hercules comes to kill Cerberus and free Theseus (not Pirithous).
Death of Theseus
When Theseus arrives back in Athens, Helen is gone and so is his mother. Menestheus, king of Athens, denounces Theseus. Theseus flees to Scyros where he is tricked and pushed off a cliff to his death.
Crete
Greek myths told by Greeks, not Cretans. Emphasized the bizarre and evil. Crete was cross-roads between Greece and Egypt.
Minoan Civilization
Discovered by Sir Arthur Evans in 1899. Palaces big and pleasant and not fortified – did not fear invasion. Bulls important symbol of culture.
Europa
Descended from Io. Zeus appears as a friend bull and swims to Crete with her on his back. When they arrive, she becomes Zeus’ mistress. Bear Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys
Minos
Claims kingship of Crete. Marries Pasiphae, daughter of Helius. Was supposed to sacrifice a bull from the sea for Poseidon but hides it and sacrifices a different bull.
Pasiphae
Because Minos didn’t kill the bull, Poseidon makes Pasiphae lust it. She reveals desire to Daedalus. He builds a wooden cow for her to hide in. Bull mounts cow and impregnates Pasiphae. She bears the Minotaur.
Minotaur’s labyrinth
Minos is ashamed. Ask Daedalus to build prison for Minotaur. Victims are sent into labyrinth to death.
Androgeus
Son of Minos. Competes in Athens and defeats all the boys. King Aegeus sends him to kill Bull from Crete. He ends up dying and Minos attacks Athens.
Megara
On the way to Athens, Minos stops in Megara. Nisus’ daughter Scylla falls in love with Minos. She cuts off Nisus’ protective purple hair and Megara falls. Minos abandons Scylla.
Minos and Athens
Minos prays to Zeus to help capture Athens. Famine sent, Athens surrenders. Punishment: Athens sends 7 girls and boys for Minotaur to eat. Theseus volunteers to fight Minotaur.
Ariadne
Daughter of Minos. Falls for Theseus. Daedalus tells her to give him a ball of thread so he can find his way out of labyrinth. Theseus flees with Ariadne then dumps her at island of Naxos. Dionysus marries Ariadne (the very holy one).
Daedalus and Icarus
Minos turns on Daedalus for helping others. Imprisons him and Icarus in labyrinth but Daedalus makes wing and escape by flying with Icarus. Icarus flies to close to sun.
Death of Minos
Daedalus flies to Sicily and stays with Cocalus. Minos arrives, recognizes his work and want revenge. Cocalus invites Minos to dinner but his daughters add boiling water to bath and scald Minos to death.
Cadmus fights the Dragon
One example of how Thebes was found. Cadmus was son of Agenor. Sent to find sister Europa. Goes to oracle for help but Oracle tells him to give up and find a city. Space where he will find city, dragon lives and kills Cadmus’ men. Cadmus pins dragon and removes teeth. He plants teeth and men grow from spot to kill each other. Cadmus now serves Ares. At end, he marries Harmonia.
Sparti
After the men on Thebes kill themselves, only five remain. Called Sparti (no relation to Sparta – snow men). Head of five great Theban families.
Harmonia
Illegitimate daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. She marries Cadmus. Offspring include
• Semele
• Ino
• Agave
• Actaeon

Eventually she and Cadmus will be turned to snakes before living in the Elysian fields forever.

Amphion and Zethus
Another example how Thebes was found. Amphion and Zethus are twins from Antiope and Zeus. Raised by shepherd because Antiope punished for Adultery. Amphion and Zethus find Thebes and name it after Zethus’ wife Thebe.
Oedipus
His mother is Jocasta and father is Laius. Laius told by oracle that his son would kill him.
Laius
His son is Oedipus. One day he visits King Pelops in Elis and raped his son. Cursed by Pelops – Oedipus will kill his father and sleep with his mother.
Story of Oedipus
Laius gets drunk, has sex with Jocasta and they have a son Oedipus. Laius has Oedipus abandoned but the Shepherd sends him off to the King and Queen of Corinth. He goes to Oracle to find out who his parents are but is only told he will kill his father and sleep with his mother. He leaves Corinth and kills a traveling group out of road rage (including his father). Returns to Thebes to see it terrorized by a sphinx. He answers riddle correctly and named King of Thebes. As king, he marries Jocasta and has 4 kids. Sons are Polynices and Eteocles. Daughters are Antigone and Ismene.
Oedipus the King
Plague hits Thebes. People beg Oedipus. He sends Creon to Delphi. Oracle says that the they are polluted by blood that killed Laius. Oedipus curse’s the killer of Laius and investigates. He asks Tiresias but told he can’t handle the truth. Suspects Tiresias is plotting with Creon to take kingdom. Messenger from Corinth tells Oedipus his father (king of Corinth) is dead. Messenger was one who took Oedipus to Corinth. The shepherd who gave Oedipus to messenger was the one who survived the road rage. He learns whole truth, see’s Jocasta hanged herself and he blinds his eyes.
Death of Oedipus
Oracle says that bones of Oedipus will protect whichever city has him. Creon and Polynices come to claim his bones. Oedipus curses both of them (they will kill each other). Only Theseus knows where Oedipus was buried.
Thebes after Oedipus
Eteocles and Polynices agree to share Thebes but Eteocles kicks Polynices out of city. Polynices flees to Argos where King Adrastus assemble warlords to capture Thebes (seven against Thebes).
Amphiaraus
Seer who knew that all seven of Thebes except Adriastus will die. Amphiaraus’ wife bribed to support war with necklace of Harmonia.
Seven against Thebes
Seven champions each who take a gate on Thebes. Etoecles pairs with Polynices and each stab with a spear. Adrastus is only one who flees back to Argos.
Tydeus
One of seven against Thebes. He wounds Melanippus (Theban). Athena was to grant him immortality but Amphiaraus cuts of Melanippus’ head and gives it to Tydeus. Tydeus eats the skull and Athena changes her mind.
Creon
After Thebes against seven, Creon named King of Thebes. He declares Eteocles hero and Polynices traitor. Anyone who buries Polynices is traitor.
Antigone
She ignores Creon’s law and gives her brother a decent burial. Creon condemns her to be shut in a tomb. She is engaged to Creon’s son Haemon who tries to intervene. Tiresias warns Creon of consequence. He buries Polynices then free’s Antigone but she already kills herself. Haemon tries to kill Creon but kills himself. Creon’s wife kills herself.
Anagnorisis
Recognition
Peripeteia
Reversal of Fortune
Jason and the Argonauts
Group of characters on a quest to find the golden fleece. Set before the Trojan War.
Golden Fleece
Athamas, King in Boeotia has two children from Nephele. Son Phrixus and girl Helle. He then dumps Nephele and marries Ino, plot to kill Phrixus. When they sacrifice Phrixus, a golden ram appears and flies off with Phrixus. Helle falls off. Phrixus then sacrifices ram for Zeus and gives fleece to Aeetes.
Aeson
Imprisoned by his half-brother Pelias. His son is Jason who is raised by Chiron the centaur.
Jason
He returns to Iolcus with one sandal (Hera is his champion). Pelias commands Jason to find the Golden Fleece. He has ship built for 50 men. Built by a man named Argus and named Argo. Argonauts are the crew. Members of Argonauts include great number of warriors.
Women of Lemnos
Insulted Aphrodite who punished them by making their genitalia stink. Husbands refused to have sex with them. Lemnos women became jealous and killed all the men. Queen Hypsiplye hides her father. When Argonauts arrive, women seduce them.
Doliones and Cyzicus
Argonauts land on Propontis and spend nice time with the Doliones. That night, storm drives them off course and they land back on Propontis. They defeat attackers and realize it’s Doliones.
Heracles and Argonauts
Heracles’ love child Hylas is captured by water nymphs. Heracles goes to look for him and Argonauts leave without him. His 12 labors are not finished yet.
Amycus
He challenges people to box and always wins. Polydeuces defeats him and crushes his skull.
King Phineus
He is a seer who told too much information. Whenever he tries to eat, Harpies snatch it and leave crumbles and odor. Argonauts lay trap for Harpies and Zetes and Calais kill them off.
Symplegades
Clashing Rocks. King Phineus tells them how to get to Black Sea. When dove goes through, the Argos will go through. They then arrive in Colchis.
Medea
Daughter of King Aeetes. Aphrodite sends Eros to make her fall in love with Jason. She offers to help Jason if he promises her to marry her. She is a sorceress. Helps him steal the Fleece when Aeetes refuses to give it up.
King Aeetes
Sets challenge for Jason to get Golden Fleece. He must yoke two fire-breathing bulls, plow a field with them and plant remaining teeth from dragon killed by Cadmus. He then has to kill the men from the teeth.
Acquiring the Golden Fleece
A dragon guards the golden fleece. Medea gives dragon potion to put it to sleep. Medea and Jason steel fleece. Aeetes tries to capture them but she cuts up her baby brother.
Marriage of Medea and Jason
On the way back, they land on the island of Phaeacians. Aeetes’ soldiers arrive and demand Medea return. They agree only if she doesn’t have sex with Jason. Jason marries her quickly and takes her to bed.
Return of Argos
They return to Crete to find Bronze Giant Talos terrorizing people. He had veins of ichor that makes him immortal. Medea makes him trip and his vein opens.
Pelias
Sends Jason on the journey to find Golden Fleece. When he hears that the Argos sinks, he kills Aeson with Bull’s poison blood. Aeson’s wife kills herself and his son is murdered.
Death of Pelias
Jason returns with Golden Fleece. Pelias wouldn’t give throne, so Medea tricks them into thinking that boiling an old ram makes it young. Pelias daughter boil Pelias but he dies.
Aftermath of death of Pelias
Jason and Medea are driven to exile in Cornith. Jason dedicates Argos to Poseidon. Medea and Jason have two sons.
Euripides Medea
Jason decides to marry Creon’s daughter Glauce. Medea complains. Medea flees to Athens and is pregnant by Aegeus. Theseus arrives and Medea is threatened. He tells Aegeus to give Theseus poison. Aegeus notices sword and Medea flees. She returns to Colchis. Her son Medus kills Aeetes.
Calydonian Boar Hunt
Oeneus (wine man) and Althaea. Meleager joins the Argonauts. When he comes back, his father’s land is plagued by wild boar (sent by Artemis). Great hunt brings in many heroes. Include Atalanta, virgin warrioress. She and Amphiaraus bring boar down adn Meleager kills it.
Atalanta
She refuses to be married but her dad insists. A race occured where the suitor who lost would get his head chopped off. Melanion wins race with help of Aphrodites and 3 apples. They have sex in shrine of Zeus and are turned to lions.
Trojan War
Paris of Troy captures Helen, married to Menelaus of Sparta. Menelaus and Agamemnon lead force and 10 year war with ultimate defeat of Troy.
Tantalus
King of Lydia. He fed his son Pelops to the Gods. Demeter ate some (distressed from loosing Persephone) but the Gods realized and punished Tantalus to the Underworld. Zeus remade Pelops and Hephaestus gave him an ivory shoulder.
Pelops
Goes to Elis to win the bride Hippodamia. Her father challenged suitors to a race. He would ride up and cut off their head. Pelops had tireless horse from Poseidon. He bribes Myrtilus to alter king’s chariot (wax instead of bronze pins). Promises Myrtilus to have Hippodamia for the first night but instead throws him off a cliff and is cursed.
Atreus
Son of Pelops. He has two sons, Menelaus and Agamemnon. After the reign of Pelops, he is chosen to be king. He learns his wife was having affair with his brother Thyestes. Atreus kills Thyestes’ sons and feeds it to Thyestes’ (shows him their heads). He is cursed.
Aegisthus
Son of Thyestes. Avenges his brothers’ deaths and kills Atreus. Agamemnon and Menelaus flee to Sparta. Thyestes takes throne of Mycenae. However, Tyndareus, King of Spart leads force to drive Thyestes out and give Mycenae to Agamemnon.
Leda
Wife of Tyndareus. She was raped by Zeus guised as a swan and gave birth to four children. Castor and Clytemnestra were fathered by Tyndareus and Polydeuces and Helen fathered by Zeus. Tyndareus marries Clytemnestra to Agamemnon but Helen too beautiful.
Castor and Polydeuces
Dioscuri (son of Zeus). They rescue Helen from Theseus and capture Theseus’ mom. Join the Argonauts. Castor killed during Cattle raid but Polydeuces convinces Zeus to give both of them partial immortality.
Oath of Tyndareus
Odysseus solves Tyndareus’ problem with Helen. For his help, he gets to marry Penelope, Tyndareus’ niece. The oath is that all suitors swear that if anyone violates Helen’s honor, they must punish the offender. If someone doesn’t swear, they cannot woo her. Helen gets to choose her suitor. She choose Menelaus.
Paris
Prince of Troy. One of the 50 sons of Priam (spared by Heracles). Exposed on Mt. Ida after seer told that he will destroy the city. A shepherd saves him. His brother Hector was greatest warrior of Troy, but Paris most handsome. He eventually journeys to Sparta, violates xenia and abducts Helen.
Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
Paris called on by Zeus to judge the beauty of Hera, Aphrodite and Athena. Zeus lusts for Thetis. Son of Peleus and Thetis is Achilles. Zeus cannot have child with her because otherwise their son would be greater than Zeus himself. Eris not invited to wedding so shows up, throws an apple and Hera, Athena and Aphrodite grab it. Paris has to judge who is the most beautiful. They each bribe Paris – Hera with power, Athena with glory and Aphrodite with women. Aphrodite promises to give him Helen.
Palamedes
Odysseus does not want to fight for Spara in Trojan War. He feigns madness but Palamedes puts his son Telemachus in front of plow. Odysseus saves his son, proving his is sane. Odysseus plants a message in Palamedes tent saying he will steel Gold and is stoned to death.
Preparing to fight Troy
They cannot win without Achilles, greatest Greek warrior. Second, Agamemnon must sacrifice Iphigenia, his own daughter for the winds to sail. Agamemnon kills her daughter by gagging her at the altar.
Achilles immortality
Thetis, who was immortal, burns Achilles. Peleus catches them and Thetis runs away and leaves Achilles with Peleus. Peleus gives Achills to Chiron, who raises him. Other story says that Thetis held him and dipped him in the River Styx, however by holding his heel, his heel is not immortal.
Achilles as a girl
Thetis tries to hide him from going into war. She dresses him up as a girl and hides him in Scyros. Odysseus finds him by laying out sword and shield. He stages an attack and Achilles fights. Odysseus recruits him for the war.
Iliad
Central character is Achilles. Not a story about the Trojan war but a story of Achilles’ choices. Talks about the wrath of Achilles. Trojan war is background but not central.
Chryses
Priest of Apollo who asks to have his daughter Chryseis (captured and was prize for Agamemnon). Agamemnon refuses and Chryses calls upon Apollo to plague the Greeks.
Achilles and Agamemnon
Achilles challenges Agamemnon to give back Chryseis. Agamemnon gives up Chryseis but takes Achilles girl Briseis. Achilles is dishonored, withdraws from the war and wants the Greek to start loosing. Thetis asks Zeus to let the Trojans win a bit.
Embassy to Achilles
Agamemnon offers so many gifts to Achilles to get him back. Achilles refuses the gifts because he is disgusted with Agamemnon.
Fates of Achilles
His mother Thetis knows Achilles fate. He can go to battle, die in glory and die early or stay back, live a long life and die a normal person. Fate of his life is in Achilles hand.
Patroclus
Achilles best friend. Takes Achilles bow and armor because he is sad that the Greeks are dying. Hopes to convince the Trojans that Achilles is back and they will retreat. Gets carried away and ends up getting killed by Hector. Achilles decides he must avenge his friend and kill Hector.
Wrath of Achilles
He is so angry that his friend died, he kills all Trojans in his way. He ends up clogging the river. The river attacks Achilles and Hephaestus saves him. All Trojans flee back except Hector.
Glory of Hector
Hector doesn’t want to hear his baby and wife being captured. His life is a warrior. When he kisses his baby, his child doesn’t recognize him. Hector takes off his helmet.
Death of Hector
Hector runs around the city of Troy 3 times (symbolic to fall of Troy – Athena tricks him). Achilles stabs him with a spear and drags him on a chariot. Refuses burial of Hector. Hermes brings Priam to Achilles who appeals as a father and asks to bury Hector. Achilles consoles Priam.
Troy after Achilles
The amazons help Troy. Achilles is killed by an arrow by Paris in the heel. Ajax best of Greeks after Achilles and wants the armor. Odysseus gives better speech though and Ajax goes crazy.
Ajax
He wants to kill Menelaus, Agamemnon, and Odysseus. He thinks he is killing them but realizes its just sheep. He ends up dying on his sword.
Philoctetes
On island of Lemnos. He is cured and taken to Troy where he kills Paris with Heracles bow.
Trojan Horse
Odysseus comes up with strategy of Trojan Horse. Huge horse that holds 50 men. Greeks pretend to give up and go hide. Sinon was left to explain to Trojans that he was to be sacrificed. The horse was to be a gift to Athena. Laocoon is a priest of Poseidon who doesn’t believe it. He shoots an arrow but two snakes eat Laocoon. At night, the Trojans party and at night, Greeks come out and kill everyone.
Neoptolemus
Son of Achilles. He kills Priam and cuts his daughter Polyxena’s throat over Achilles tomb.
Ajax the Lesser
Rapes Cassandra against the image of Athena. Athena is angry and ruins homecoming of Greeks. Ajax drowns, Odysseus wanders for 10 years, and Menelaus wants to kill Helen but cant when he sees her naked.
Agamemnon Homecoming
Returns from Troy with Cassandra as his mistress. His wife Clytemnestra plots revenge for kill their daughter. Having affair with Aegisthus. Agamemnon walk into his house on a red carpet (hubris) and is stabbed in his bath. Cassandra follows and is killed.
Orestes
Electra and her brother Orestes, children of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, plot to kill Clytemnestra for killing Agamemnon. He kills Aegisthus then his mother, then driven crazy.
Eumenides
Furies – born from blood of Cronus and Gaea. The Kindly ones. Apollo purifies Orestes and tells him to go to Athens to stand trial on Hill of Ares. Apollo defends, Furies prosecute.
Trial of Orestes
Apollo says that Orestes was from his father, not his mother (Athena). Furies say that he killed family blood. Jury is tied so Athena calls for Acquittal.
Furies to Eumenides
Athena transforms Furies to Eumenides (kindly ones) to be protectors of Athens. This is the establishment of a court system.
The Odyssey
Odysseus has spent 20 years from his home, 10 in war 10 trying to get back. 108 men have moved into his house to win Penelope. Story of a journey finding character…
Calypso
Nymph and Goddess and makes Odysseus her love for seven years. Offers him immortality but he wants to die with his wife Penelope. Her name means Concealer. Hermes tells Calypso to let Odysseus go.
Phaeacians
After leaving Calypso he washes ashore on their island, tells them the story of his journey. He eventually reveals his name and takes on the role of Homer.
Ciconians
First stop along the way for Odysseus. They sack the city but his men don’t listen. They are nearly home a storm sends them to the lotus-eaters.
Lotus Eaters
Lotus is a drug that makes you want to stay and eat more Lotus. Odysseus is able to order his men back to his ship.
Cyclopes
One-Eyed giant. Odysseus and his men explore cave to benefit from Xenia but Cyclops kills 2 men. Odysseus plans to kill Cyclops but a boulder blocks entrance to cave. They set up a plan to kill the cyclops. When the cyclops asks for Odysseus’ name, he says “Nobody.”

Stabs the cyclops eye.

Aeolus
God of wind. Gives Odysseus a bag of bad wind to help him sail home on good wind. Odysseus won’t reveal the content of bag and men open it. Wind blows them back to Aeolus who curses them.
Laestrygonians
Cannibalistic giants. Only the men on his ship survive.
Circe
Turns half of Odysseus’ men to pigs. Odysseus becomes her lover for a year. She tells him to go to the underworld to get help in going home.
Sirens
Women who sing beautiful songs. He plugs his men’s ears with earwax, then is tied to a mast so he can’t escape.
Scylla and Charybdis
Charybdis is a whirlpool that sucks ships whole and Scylla is a 6 headed monster.
Helius
The Sun God. Odysseus arrives on his island. His men eat the cattle after being told not to. Zeus and Helius smash the ship with a thunderbolt. Only Odysseus survives for not eating the cattle. Eventually arrives on Island of Calypso.
Homecoming of Odysseus
Phaeacians help Odysseus travel home. He hides in a cave where Athena helps him dress as a beggar. He stays with his swineherd Eumaeus. He reveals himself to Telemachus. Odysseus goes to his house where the beggars are very rude to him. His dog Argus recognizes him and dies.
Interview with Penelope
Penelope interviews the beggar overnight. She tests him and proves faithful to Odysseus. She pretends to weave a burial shroud for his father Laertes to delay the suitors. She announces the next day a task for suitor, a task only Odysseus can complete.
Odysseus’ task
The task is to string Odysseus’ bow and shoot an arrow the 12 axes. 108 suitors too weak to do it. Odysseus is able to do it and with Athena, kills all 108 suitors.
Final test with Penelope
Odysseus presents himself after defeating the suitors. Penelope tells Eurclyea to get the bed out. Odysseus reveals that the bed is bound to a tree and cannot be moved – reveals his identity.
Jupiter
Greek = Zeus
Juno
Greek = Hera
Ceres
Greek = Demeter
Diana
Greek = Artemis
Vesta
Greek = Hestia
Mercury
Greek = Hermes
Vulcan
Greek = Hephaestus
Neptune
Greek = Poseidon
Mars
Greek = Ares
Minerva
Greek = Athena
Venus
Greek = Aphrodite
Libre
Greek = Dionysus
Dis
Greek = Hades

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