Classical Mythology: Midterm #2

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Dioynsus

God of Wine, Fertility, Theather

Symbols:  Ivy, Phallus, Horns of a Bull

Associated with maddness

 

Sources:  Two Homeric Hymns, The Bacchae

Semele
Dioynsus’s Mother, Daughter of Cadmus (King of Thebes)

How was Dioynsus Born?

  • Zeus impregnates her in mortal form
  • Hera was jealous, made Semele doubt that Zeus was a god
  • Semele asks Zeus to expose true self
  • Semele burnt to a crisp, Hermes saves fetus which is place in Zeus’s thigh

How does Zeus hide Dioynus from Hera?

Sends Dioynsus to Semele’s sister, Ino.

Dioynsus is then dressed in female clothing as a disguise

What does Hera do to Ino?
Hera drives Ino mad once she finds out that she is fostering Dioynsus. ;Ino then kills her children.
What does Zeus do to save Dioynsus from Hera’s rage?
He is turned into a goat and sent to the Nymphs of Nysa.
Who are the Nymphs of Nysa?
They take in Dioynsus and teach him the skill of wine-making (God of Wine)
What does Hera do to Dioynsus when he is with the Nymphs of Nysa?
She drives him into maddness.  Then Dioynsus wanders northern Africa in a delirum
Who are the Bacchae?
Female followers of Dioynsus who carry thyrsus
What is a thyrsus?
Staff wound with ivy with a pine cone crown
Who are the Satyrs?
Half man, half horse who have erect penises that follow Dioynsus
Dioynsus travels to India on a chariot driven by _________.
Panthers
What King does Dioynsus run in to? What does Dioynsus do for this king?
King Midas.  To reward Midas for his hospitality, he rewards him a wish.  Midas wishes that everything that he touched turned to gold.
How is King Midas liberated from his wish/curse?
He  washes in a river that leads to Lydia.  Lydia becomes a rich region.
Who is Ariadne?
Dioynsus’s Wife, who was found on the Island of Pactolus.
Why was Ariadne on the island?
Theseus (a hero) left her there.
Who is Lycurgus?

King of Thrace, opposed Dioynsus

Went mad, tried to rape his mother and pruned the legs off of his sons (thought they were ivy)

Who are the Minyads?
The daughters of Minyas who resisted Dioynsus, went mad and tore child apart, joined the Bacchae afterwards.
Who are the Proetids?
Daughters of Proteus who oppose Dioynsus who were turned mad. ;Thought that they were cows and wandered the countryside.
What happens when Dioynsus is abducted by pirates in one of Homer’s Hymns?
Dioynsus turns into a lion, scares the pirates, who then jump off the ship and turn into dolphins.
Why does Dioynsus return to Thebes?
To take vengence on his aunts (Agave, Ino, Autonoe) because they didn’t believe that Semele had sex with Zeus.
What happens to Ino, Agave, and Autonoe?
They become mad and join the Bacchae.
Who is King Pentheus?
King of Thebes, opposes Dioynsus
What happens when Pentheus imprisons Dioynsus?
Dioynsus escapes and then destroys Pentheus’s palace. 
What does Dioynsus convince Pentheus to do?
To dress up like a woman and sneak into the mountains to watch the Bacchae.
What happens to Pentheus when he is spotted by the Bacchae?
He is torn apart.  He has his head ripped off by his mother, Agave, who doesn’t realize the deed that she did until she presents the head to her father, Cadmus. ;(Agave thought that Pentheus was a lion)
Why does Dioynsus go to the underworld?
To retrieve Semele. ;They then both go to Mt. Olympus. ;Semele becomes divine.
Enthusiasmos
“being filled with god”
Ekstasis
“Standing outside oneself”
sparagmos

“tearing apart”

;

omophagna
“eating raw flesh”
What social class did the cult of Dioynsus appeal to?
Women.
What happened to ancient Greeks when they died, according to ancient beliefs?

They descended to the underworld and became shadowy figures, ghosts

;

The soul (psyche) survived as an image outside of the corpse

What does “psyche” mean?
Breath.; It is the natural element that animates the body during life.
What does “eidolon” mean?
The image that is produce by someone’s psyche (breath).
How did Greeks ward off ghosts?

By anointing the body, displaying the body, mourning, paying respects, making tombs, burying bodies with vaulable items.

 

Sometime cut up and burned.

Who were responsible for a proper burial?
Women
Who lead the souls to the underworld?
Hermes.
Who sent Odysseus to the underworld?  Who did Odysseus have to see?
Circe sent Odysseus to the underworld to seek advice from Tiresias, a renowned seer.
What is unique about Tiresias?
He was turned into a woman when he killed a female snake.  Turned back into a man when he killed a male snake seven years later.
What did Zeus and Hera ask Tiresas?
Since Tiresas was both a man and a woman, they asked who recieves more sexual pleasure: man or woman.
What did Hera and Zeus do when Tiresas says that woman find more satisfaction in sex?
Hera punished Tiresias by making him blind; Zeus counteracts this by making Tiresias the most famous seer in Greek myth.
How does Odysseus attract the ghosts?
By offering milk and sweet honey, typical foodstuffs that were at funerals/burials.
Name some of the ghosts that Odysseus sees.
Elpenor (Odysseus’ friend who begs for a proper burial), Anticlea (mother), Ajax, Achilles, King Minos, Agamemnon.
Who is Tityos?
Ghost that Odysseus meets, attempted to rape Leto -; vulture eats his liver.
Who is Tantalus?
Ghost who cannot satisfy his hunger nor thirst.
Who is Sisyphus?
Condemned for eternity to roll a boulder up a hill, only to have it roll back down, once the summit is reached.
What is Elysium?
Paradise on Earth, only a select few are chosen to go there after death.
Who is Orpheus?
A skilled musican who could enchant even wild animals.; Loves Eurydice.
What happens to Eurydice on their wedding day?
A bee-keeper attacks her, tries to rape her.; Eurydice runs away, only to be bitten by a snake, and then dies.
What does Orpheus decide to do in regards to Eurycide’s death?
He descends to the underworld to bring her to the world above.
What verdict does Hades and Persophone give to Orpheus?
They tell him that he can bring back Eurycide, on one condition:  he cannot look back on his ascent back to the world above.
Does Eurycide come back to life?
No, Orpheus cannot overcome doubt, and looks back, so Eurycide disappears.
Who is the inventer of homosexuality, according to Greek myth?
Orhpeus.  He wants no other woman than Eurycide.
Who ends up killing Orpheus?
The Bacchae throw Orpheus’ body in a river in Thrace.; Orpheus’ head continues to sing:  Apollo orders head to cease singing.
What did the teachings of Orphism teach?

Hope for salvation, comfortable afterlife, “The body is a tomb,” as long as the followers were abstinent and refrained from eating meat and commiting sins.

 

Moral

What is “metempsychosis?”
It is the reincarnation of souls:  souls return from Hades to Earth for new lives in different bodies.
Who/what were influenced by Orphic teachings?
Pythagoras, Plato, and the Christian notions about the soul and its relation to the body  (sometimes Christ = Orpheus)
Who wrote “Myth of Er?”
Plato did.  He didn’t like the traditional myths and what they stood for, so he said fuck them and then made his own shit up.
What is the meaning of “republic” through the eyes of Socrates?
Injustice is punished in this life and the next.
Who is Er and why is he significant?
Warrior that was killed in battle.; Descended into underworld, but found to be living ten days later.; Er is significant because he tells of the underworld (and how Plato perceived it)
What happened to souls when they died, according to Plato and Myth of Er?
Souls were judged, and then they were sent above or below.; They spent 1,000 years there.; After that time, they were offered a second chance (Orpheus chose to come back as swan, Achilles as a humble man)
What is the “Plain of Forgetfulness?”
Where souls went to drink to forget everything of their past lives.
Who is Aenas?
Roman Hero equivalent to Odysseus.; (Vergil)
What is the Roman view on the underworld according to Vergil and the Aeneaid?
There is a river called Acheron where a toll must be paid to a ferryman named Charon.
Who is Charon?
Ferryman, greedy old man.
What is a legend?
Story about a hero
What defines a hero?
noble, well-born male, may be have divine, great strength, male companion, goes on a quest, etc.
What is a hero-cult?
A cult centered around ancient tombs called Heroa.
What is a defining characteristic of a Heroa?
They are placed in conspicous locations and they resemble earthen mounds.
Who revered Gilgamesh?
The Mesopotamians
What city was Gilgamesh king of?
Uruk
What is the Epic of Gilgamesh similar to?
Homer’s Odyssey.
What happened when Gilgamesh became King of Uruk?
He abused his power by defeating all that came.  He also slept with every virgin bride before the wedding day.
What sort of help did the gods provide the people of Uruk?
They fashioned Endiku from clay.
What were some defining characteristics of Endiku?
He was a primitive man, hair covered his body, and he lived in the wild.
How does Gilgamesh react when Endiku threatens to invade the city?
He sends out a trapper with a whore to try to ambush Endiku.
What does Endiku do when the whore starts to lure him?
Endiku has sex with her for six days and seven nights (evidently he couldn’t last for another night. Rookie.) This results in Endiku becoming civilized (he learns to eat bread and finally puts some clothes on)
What happens when Endiku challenges Gilgamesh after Endiku has become civilized?
They fight, but they can’t beat each other, so they establish a life-long friendship.
Who is the guardian of the Land of the Living?
Humbaba
What do Gilgamesh and Endiku do to the Land of the Living?
Gilgamesh starts cutting down trees.  Then both G and E kill Humbaba.
What is significant about Ishtar?
She wants to have sex with an unwilling Gilgamesh.  For punishment, the Bull of Heaven comes down.
What happens when the Bull of Heaven snorts?
A chasm appears, to which the young men of Uruk fall into.
What happens when the Bull of Heaven is defeated by Gilgamesh and Endiku?
They have a celebration, which upsets the Gods.  They decide that Endiku must die.  Gilgamesh mourns this death.
Why does Gilgamesh seek Untapishtism?
Untapishtism survived the flood.  Gilgamesh wants immortality.
Who does Gilgamesh meet when he arives at the gardens of the Gods?
Siduri.  She is the beer-maid of the Gods.  She advises Gilgamesh to accept his immortality.
What does Untapishtim challenge Gilgamesh to do in order to obtain immortality?
To stay awake for 6 days and 7 nights.  Gilgamesh fails.
What other means of obtaining immortality does Gilgames hear of?
A herb that grows at the bottom of the sea that restores youth.  Gilgamesh is on his way back home when a serpent eats the herb.
What does Gilgamesh recognize as his greatest achievement?
The city of Uruk.
What is the Argive Plain?
It contains the cities of Myeanae and Tiryns.  These cities were the centers of wealth and power in the Bronze Age.
Who does Zeus make pregnant by surrounding her in a mist/cloud?
Io
Why does Zeus turn Io into a cow?
Hera was investingating.  Hera asks for the cow as a gift.
How does Zeus save Io?
Sends Hermes.  Hermes then sings to Argus (monster that never sleeps). Argus falls asleep, Io is liberated.
How does Hera torment Io even further, and how is she saved?
A gadfly torments her.  She then meets Prometheus who says that Io will regain human form in Eygpt when Zeus touches her.
Who does Io give birth to?
Epaphus (he who has been touched), future king of Egypt.
Epaphus marries Memphis.  Who are some of their significant descendants?
Aegyptus and Danaus.  Aegyptus has 50 sons and Danaus has 50 daughters (the Danaids)
What does Aegyptus want to happen in regard to his sons and the Daniads?  How does that play out?
They should marry.  Danuas doesn’t want this, they flee to Argos. ;50 sons follow. ;Danuas then instruct the Danaids to kill the sons. ;Only one son survives.
What was Argos like before the Daniads came?
Cursed by Poseidon and didn’t have much for water.  Amymone searched for the water, was almost raped by a satyr, saved by Poseidon, then he raped her.
What are the Danaids associated with?
Waters and Springs
Who is Acrisus’s daughter?
Danae
What does the oracle say about Acrisus’s grandson?
He will kill Acrisus.
How does Acrisus forestall the oracle’s prophecy?
He tries to lock up Danae in a cellar. ;Zeus impregnates her by showering her with gold.
What does Acrisus do when he finds Baby Perseus?
He puts Perseus and Danae into a wooden box.
What is important to note about Polydectus and Danae?
Polydectus has feelings for Danae that aren’t reciprocated.  Perseus protects those feelings.
What is Polydectus’s plan to try to get Danae?
He pretends to marry Hippolamia. ;He asks for horses as a wedding gift.
What does Perseus offer to give as an alternate wedding present?
The head of a Gorgon.
What must Perseus do in order to prepare for fighting the Gorgon?
Find out the location of some helpful nymphs through the extraction of information from the Graea.
Who are the Graea?
Hideous hags that share one eye and one tooth. ;Perseus steals the eye and then gets the location of the nymphs.
What magical objects does Perseus receive?
Cap of Hades (invisibility), winged sandals, special pouch, sheild/sword (Hermes)
Which Gorgon does Perseus slay?
Medusa. ;She is the only mortal one.
What does Perseus do when he sees that Danae is still persued by Polydectes?
He turns him into stone.
Who does Perseus want to marry?
Andromeda. ;Unfortunately, she is about to be eaten by the sea monster Ceto.
Why is Andromeda being sacrificed to the sea monster Ceto?
Her mother, Cassopiea boasted that she was more beautiful than the Nereids. ;This makes Posiedon angry.
Andromeda was already engaged to Phineus. ; What happens when Phineus finds out about Perseus?
He storms into the hall where Perseus is celebrating. ;Perseus then turns him into stone.
Who is the son of Perseus and Andromeda?
Perses. ;He is the ancestor of the Persians.
What happens when Perseus goes to meet up with Acrisus?
Acrisus fears the prophecy, goes to Thessaly. It just so happens that Perseus was participating in an athletic event and accidentally kills Acrisus.
What city does Perseus found?
Mycenae.
What happens when Perseus and Andromeda die?
Athena places them in the stars.
Who is Alcmena?
She is the mother of Heracles. ;She is also the daughter of Electryon and his niece.
Who are two of Electryon’s nephews?
Eurystheus and Amphitryon
Who did Electryon entrust his kingdom to?
Alcmena and Amphitryon.  Amphitryon kills Electryon and runs off to Thebes with Alcmena.
What must Amphitryon do to sleep with Alcmena?
Avenge her brothers that were killed by pirates.  Amphitryon kills the pirates.
Zeus lusts for Alcmena (go figure) how does this play out?
Zeus comes disguised as Amphitryon, has sex with Alcmena.  The real Amphitryon has sex with Alcmena later that day.  Alcmena has a divine and moral seed.
Hera is jealous of Alcmena.  What does she do to the birth of Heracles?
She delays the birth by having the birthing goddess, curse Alcmena.  One of Alcmena’s servants break the curse, Heracles and Iphicles are born.
What does Hera do after Heracles is born?
She sends Snakes to kill him.
What happens to Heracles’ music teacher?
Heracles kills him by hitting him over the head with a lyre.  Heracles is then sent to Mount Cithaeron.
What does Heracles do when he is 18?
He fights a lion that is ravaging the flocks of Thespius.  Thespius gives his 50 daughters to Heracles.  Heracles has sex with each of them.  50 sons are born.
What happens to Megara and the three children?
Heracles goes mad and kills them.
Who is Megara?
Daughter of Creon.  Wife of Heracles. Heracles goes mad and kills Megara and 3 children.
What does the oracle at Delphi tell Heracles to do?

He must complete the 12 labors of Eurystheus.

athloi = contests.

The first labor.
Nemean Lion.  Heracles shoots arrows, realizes that the lion has impenterable skin, wrestles the lion and then wears the skin. Shows to Eurythseus, says to bring labors to servant, Copreus.
The second labor.
The Lemaean Hydra.  Serpent with heads that will multiply when cut off.  Nephew, Iolaus helps Heracles to complete.  Heracles makes poisionous arrows from blood.
The thrid labor.
The Ceryneian Deer.  Tracked the magical deer that belgoned to Artemis for a year.  Wounds it, bringing it back, Apollo and Artemis appear, Heracles apologizes.  After showing to Copreus, releases the deer.
The fourth labor.
The Erymanthian Boar.  Catches the boar, brings back, Eurythesus falls into vase.
Who is Pholus?
The side deed with the Erymanthian Boar.  He is a friendly Centuar that gives Heracles wine that attract the other centuars.
Who is Chiron?
An immortal Centuar that is wounded in the battle with Heracles.  Is in intense pain.  Prometheus trades his mortality for his immortality.  
What happens to Pholus?
Picks up one of Heracles’ arrows, drops it on his hoof and dies.
The fifth labor.
Augean Stables. ;Augeas had a lot of herds, didn’t clean the stables, Heracles diverts a river and clears the stables.
The sixth labor.
The Stymphalian Birds.  Deadly birds.  Heracles uses bronze castenets to get them out of cover.  Shoots them with his arrows.
The seventh labor.
The Cretean Bull.  Seizes the bull, rides it back to Eurytheus.  Near Rome, Theseus kills the bull in the plain of Marathon.
The Eighth labor.
Horses of Diomedes.  Man-eating horses.  Heracles rounds them up, then feeds Diomedes to them.  Wolves then eat the horses.
What side deed does Heracles do when he is rounding up the Horses of Diomedes?
He stops by the house of Admetus.  Admetus had been offered immortality if someone died for him. Alcestis (his wife) volunteered.  Heracles comes by when the funeral is, gets drunk, realizes the situation.  Wrestles with Death, brings back Alcestis.
The ninth labor.
The Girdle of Hippolyta.  Amazon queen gives it over.  Hera spreads rumor.  Amazons attack Heracles.  Heracles strangles the bitch and takes the girdle.
The tenth labor.
The cattle of Geryon.  Geryon is a monster with 3 bodies attached at waist.  Fired arrows at sun. Helius gives Heracles his cup, Heracles gathers cattle in cup.
What happens when Heracles is returning the cattle?
Cacus (3 headed, fire-breathing monster) steals cattle, put them in a cave.  Heracles find the cattle, kills Cacus.
The eleventh labor.
Apples of Hesperides.  Apples grew on magical tree that Zeus gave to Hera as a wedding gift. Hundred-headed monster on guard. Needed directions.
What happens when Heracles is crossing Africa during the eleventh labor?
He came across Busiris, who sacrificed foreigners.  Heracles was about to be sacrificed, then kills Busiris.
What does Heracles do for Prometheus?
Kills the eagle that torments him.
How does Heracles complete the eleventh labor?
Sees Altas, asks Altas to get the apple, Heracles holds up the skies.  Altas completes the labor, wants to bring the apple back to Eurytheus. Heracles agrees, but wants pillow.  Heracles runs off.
What is the twelfth and final deed?
Cerberus.  Heracles asks Hades and Persephone for permission.  Granted.  Heracles drags Cerberus up.
What is significant about Eurytus?
He is Heracles’ archery teacher. ;Offers daugter Iole as the prize of an archery contest. ;Doesn’t give Iole, fears similar fate as Megara.
What is missing when Heracles leaves from the archery contest.
Some horses.
Who is Iphitus?
Son of Eurytus.  He goes to investigate the missing horses.  Pushes Iphitus off a cliff.
What does Heracules do to try to atone for killing Iphitus?
He goes to Delphi oracle.  Gives no solution: Heracles steals the tripod (wants to set up own oracle) Apollo tries to take it back: Zeus seperates them.
What does Apollo do to Heracles?
Forces him to be a slave to Omphale.
Who is Omphale?
Owner of Heracles.  Liked to switch clothes with Heracles.  Pan tried to rape Omphale, was Heracles instead: Pan gets smashed.
Who is Deianira?
Wife of Heracles.  Wins by wrestling river Achelous.  Has to cross river, raped by Centaur Nessus.  Deianira takes semen and blood.
Heracles never forgot about Iole.  What does he do, and what happens?
Goes back for her.  Kills Eurytus (father).  Deinaria then takes the love potion from Nessus and dips a cloak in it.  Sends it to Heracles, who dies.
What happens to Heracles upon death? (apotheosis)
He rose to heaven.  Became a god and married Hebe:  “Youth”
Autochthonous
“Sprung from Earth”
Who was Cecrops?
The first king of Athens.  Thought to have sprung from the Earth and provides the arts of civilization.
How is Erichtonius “born?”
Hepahaestus ejaculates on Athena’s leg, wipes it off on the ground. ;Up he sprung.
Where did Athena bring baby Erichthoniuos?
Brought to the daughters of Cercrops. ;Warned to not open the basket. ;They open it, which drove them mad.
Who are Cephalus and Procris?
They doubt each other’s trustwortiness multiple times.  
What is significant about Minos and Procris?
Minos ejaculated scorpions.  Procris cures him.  Minos gives Procris Laelaps, a hound that always catches prey as well as a spear that never misses mark.
What happens to Procris?
She secretly follows Cephalus on one of his hunts.  Cephalus kills her.
What happens to Cephalus?
He is exiled.  Goes to Thebes.  Laelaps is set to capture fox that can’t be caught. ;Both turned to stone.
Who are Procne and Philomela?
Daughters of Pandion (king of Athens)
Who does Procne marry?
Tereus (king of Thrace). ;They have a son Itys.
What happens when Procne wants to see her sister Philomela?
Tereus lusts Philomela, rapes her, cuts her tongue out. ;Philomela gives Procne a cloth that depecits what Tereus did.
What do Procne and Philomela decide to do when Procne find out what Tereus did to Philomela?
They kill Itys, cook him, feed him to Tereus. ;Tereus chase them. ;Philomela turns into a swallow, Procne – nightengale, Tereus = hoopoe
Who is Aegues?
The king of Athens. ;Descends fom Pandion and Erechtheus. ;Wants a male heir.
How is Aegues supposed to get a son?
Goes to Delphi, then to Pittheus to translate it. ;Next time Aegues has sex he’ll have a son.
What does Pittheus do when he hears of the oracle?
Gets Aegues drunk.  Brings his daughter, Aethra to Aegues, they have sex and Theseus is conceived.
What is special about the conception of Theseus?
He has two fathers: Poseidon and Aegues (immortal and mortal fathers).
What does Aegues leave for Theseus?
When he is of age, Theseus is to receive the sandals and the sword of Aegues.
What are the labors of Theseus?
The “clubber”, “pinebender”, Cercyon (powerful wrestler), enormous pig, Sciron (feet washing, cliff, giant turtle), Procrustes (cuts of people’s limbs)
What happens when Theseus arrives at Athens?
His father doesn’t recognize him, he is under the influence of the witch Medea
What does Aegeus tell Theseus to do under the influence of Medea?
He has to go and kill the Bull of Marathon.  Completes the task.
What happens when Medea posions Theseus’ food?
Aegeus finally recognizes Theseus by the sandals and the sword. ;Saves Theseus.
What happens when Theseus is on his way back from Crete after defeating the Minotaur?
He forgets to change his sails, Aegeus is scared, falls into the sea = Aegean Sea
What is Amazonomachy?
A war that is created with the Athenians and the Amazons when Theseus abducts the Amazon queen.
What is the name of the son that the Amazon queen bores for Theseus?
Hippolytus. ;He became a devotee of Artemis. ;Hates women. ;Loves to hunt. ;Remember: Euripides’ Hippolytus
Who does Theseus take for his wife and why is that significant to Hippolytus?
Phaedra.  Loves Hippolytus (Aphrodite).  One thing leads to another, Phaedra hangs herself, blames Hippolytus: cursed by Theseus.
Who is Pirithuous?
King of Lapiths.  Was caught red-handed stealing the cattle of Theseus.  Become friends.
What is Centaurmachy?
Pirithuous invites Centaurs to wedding, fight breaks out between the Lapithians and the Centaurs.
Who do Pirithuous and Theseus chose as their brides?
Persephone and Helen (daugther of Zeus), respectively.
What happens when Pirithous and Theseus visit the underworld?
They have their asses stuck to chairs.  Heracles saves Theseus.  Pirithuous has to stay in underworld.
Zeus falls in love with Europa.  What happens between them?
Zeus turns into a bull.  Europa rides the bull to Crete.  They have several children, one of which was Minos.
How does Zeus protect Europa and the island of Crete?
He gives her Laelaps (the hound) and Talos (a robot that hurls boulders at ships that are coming to land)
Who becomes the King of Crete?
Minos.  He claimed that Poseidon promised him the throne.  A bull rises from the sea.  Minos doesn’t sacrifice the bull. ;Pasiphae (Minos’ wife) falls in love with the bull
What does Pasiphae do with her love for the bull?
She goes to Daedalus (skills craftsman) and asks for him to make a cow out of wood.  The bull mounts the wooden cow (Pasiphae is inside) becomes pregnant with the Minotaur.
Who is the Minotaur?
Human Body, head of a bull.  “Son” of Pasiphae.
How is the Minotaur contained?
Minos instructs Daedalus to construct a labyrinth (maze).  No one can enter and come out alive.
Minos attacks the city of Athens.  On his way he seizes the city of Megara.  Who is the local king and what is special about him?
Nisus.  He is invulnerable as lone as the purple lock grow in his head.
What does Scylla do to her father, Nisus?
Will cut the lock as long as Minos will marry her.  Cuts the lock, but Minos sails away.
What does Scylla do when Minos sails away?
She swims after him.  However, Nisus (in osprey form) tries to kill Scylla, she is then turned into a bird “the shearer”
What happens to the Athenians?
Minos has Zeus send plague and famine.  The Athenians must sacrifice 7 boys and 7 girls to the Minotaur every 9 years.
What significant figure boards the ship to be sacrificed to the Minotaur?
Theseus.  He brags about his ancestry.  Minos throws ring into sea.  Theseus brings back the wreath of Amphitrite (Poseidon’s wife)
Who does Theseus fall in love with at Crete?
Ariadne. ;She is Minos’ daughter.  Tells Theseus how to defeat the Minotaur.
How does Theseus defeat the labyrinth and the Minotaur?
He ties a thread to the entrance, find the Minotaur, kills it, follows the thread back.
What does Theseus do with Ariadne?
Has his way with her.  Then leaves her on the island of Naxos (where Dioynsus finds her, and makes her his wife)
What does Minos do to Daedalus when he gets pissed off?
Locks he and his son, Icarus, up in the Labyrinth.
How do Icarus and Daedalus escape?
They fashion wings out of feathers and wax.  Then they fly out.
What does Daedalus warn Icarus about?
Not to fly that high.  If he does, the wax will melt.  Icarus flies too high, falls in sea and dies.
Where does Daedalus go?
To the court of Cocalus in Sicily.
How does Minos find Daedalus?
Goes to court of Daedalus, ask if they can pass a thread through the windings of a shell.  They give it to Daedalus, Minos knows that he must be there.
How does Cocalus save Daedalus?
Cocalus invites Minos to dinner.  His daughters make him a bath of boiling water, Minos is burned to death.
What was the name of the people on the island of Crete before 1450 BC?
The Minoans.  They were seafaring people, their palaces weren’t fortified. ;They had symbols of bull and the double ax.
Who uncovered the Ancient ruins of Cnossus?
Arthur Evans.

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