Classical Archaeology Exam 3

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Flavians

69-98 CE

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Portrait of Vespasian

Flavians

69-98CE

Marble

Rome

 

Wrinkled like the Roman Republic emporors, Viristic- life-like not extream perfection. Very Roman to seperate him from the Greek inspiered Nero.

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Collosseum

Flavians

69-98CE

Concrete stone Travertine and metal

Rome

 

made on the location of the lake of the golden house of Nero, left nero’s giant statue up as a comparison of the rulers. Apitheater for gladitorial games made of arches and groin vaults. Doric Ionic and Corinthian columns. Divided by social class, animals and prisoners underneath. Had awning.

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Arch of Titus

Flavians

69-98CE

Marble and Travertine

Rome

 

Arch celebrating Titus’s victory against the Jewish revolt. Images of soliders carying jeish temple artifacts-Menora. Is engraved with a dedication from the senate and the ppl of rome,had goddess Victory on it, done in baroque flamboyent style. Roman historical relief sculpture done in flavian illusionism-playing with space and depth (spear palcement). Built after Titus died, Also has his Apothesis-him becoming a god on the back of an egle joining Jupiter. Bronze statue of him in Charriot on top. combo of real and supernatural and allegorical gods.

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Menorah Procession, Arch of Titus

Flavian

69-98CE

marble travertine

Rome

Roman historical relief sculpture, flavian illusionism style,it suggest depth, it is carved as if its on a curved surface with the center being the closest point to the viewer. The spears and placement of painting on poles suggests air. This depicts the Triumph or return of the Emporor after battle. Niki and Roma are there mixed in  with the people.Allegorical figures( Roma goddes represents rome, another god represents the senate)

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Flavian Palace

Flavians

69-98CE

Brick and Concrete

Palentine Hill Rome

 

Had the Domas Flavis-public area, and Domas Augustana-private quarters. Built by Domitian. Considered himself a god before he died. polished walls. Architect-Rabirius-played with shapes unusual set up.

 

 

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Tomb of Hatervii

Flavian

69-98 CE

Marble

Rome

 

private monument, relief sculpture in wealthy family tomb, possibly for someone that worked in construction, attention to detail without regard for scale-Pleblian style, things they consider more important like the people are made bigger. Gives all the info. but not to scale.

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Portrait of a Lady

Flavian

69-98CE

marble

Rome

 

head of a flavian woman, uses chiaroscuro-contrast of light and dark for artistic effect.

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 Portrait of a Flavian Woman

Flavian

69-98CE

Marble

Rome

 

venus body realistic head with flavian haitwould have been normal at the time.

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Cancelleria Relief

Flavian

69-98CE

Marble

Rome

 

Created by Domitian to show the people pushing him to not be in war and the gods (Minerva and Roma) pushing him to fight. Was an Alter base. Has Vespasian showing him suppourt(but he really prefered Titus) -like Augustus(family). Demnatio Memoria had his face replaced after he was killed, replaced by successors face, Nerva.

Trajan
98-117 CE
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Bust of Trajan

Trajan

98-117CE

Marble

Rome

 

Meant to reflect Augustus smooth face hair over forehaead, known as the best ruler.

 

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The Baths of Trajan

Trajen

98-117 CE

Concrete stone

Rome

 

built on part of the golden house, gave people a sense of luxury, many steps with pools of different temps.Hypocaust system to heat pools,

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Forum and Market of Trajan

Trajan

98-117 CE

Brick and concrete

Rome

 

Originated as monument to victory over Dacians, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus. Temple dedicated to trajen as a god after he died, open air section, bronze statue of Trajen, middle long section-Basillica, Aula-large interior space for market cut into hillside,used buttresses to hold it in place,vaults arches and groin vaults openings for light,used to distribute gov goods or commercial activity.

 

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Market of Trajen photo
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Trajans Column

Trajan

98-117CE

Marble

Rome

 

Celebrated victory over the Dacians,showed secens from the battles, bands of sculptural decorations 100 roman ft tall, emphasis on Vitrus-corage and fortitiude of emporor army and Rome. Sucess and discipline, Trajans ashes were stored here.Originally had statue of Trajan on top, bottom-going to datia crossing the Danube-a river god, crossing bridge made of boats, another secen is in pleblian style(new for public monuments), taking a of town gate, typeface-times new roman

Hadrian
117-138CE
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Portraite of Hadrian

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

 

Chiaroscuro playing with light and shadow, beard, begins pattern of facial hair,-like Greek philosopers?

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Villa Hadriani

Hadrian

117-138 CE

Concrete

Tivoli

 

Hadrian’s place to get away, had detachment of gaurds with him, and recreated fav. places, Piazza D’oro, Maritime theater canopus (canal)Designed the entire area himself along with many other monuments.

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Canopus

Hadrian

117-138CE

concrete and marble

Tivoli

 

worngly named, collonade surrounding a large water feature,with roaman copies of greek statues surrounding them. designed by Hadrain himself, lof of mixing straight and curved elements and a lot of control of water aka man over nature.

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Maritime Theater

Hadrian

117-138

Marble and Brick

Tivioli

 

round structure designed by hadrian, for relaxing and private time, had mote and drawbridge, cicle with square inside,with fountain in center ( bubbling mind?) different views from each room so got name theater.

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Piazza d’oro

Hadrian

117-138

Brick and Concrete

Tivoli

 segmented domes collonaded courtyard, desined using Hadrians “pumpkin” domes, (Killed Apolodous)

Center of building is fountain restless engrgy again? arches vaults groin vaults and barrel vaults

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Battle of Centaurs Mosaic

Hadrian

117-138CE

small cut stones

Tivoli

 

centaur fighting off a tiger and lepoard to defend female centaur. Hellenistic style,copy if greek wall painting(uses same way to create depth on floor of the Piazza.

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Pantheon

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble brick and concrete

Rome

means all of the gods,

greek temple elements-pediments and columns, also has dome-not greek! largets enclosed space, oculous, coffers to lighten weight of roof, influenced monticello,floor inlaid with marble squares and cirlcels -Hadrian, same location as temple made by agripamonolith columns and size of dome=Hadrian’s power.

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Temple of Venus and Roma

Hadrian

117-138CE

Concrete travetine and marble

Rome

 

The temple has a Roman style large platfom ,but is not just a frontal structure(Greek) it had 2 back to back inner chambers-cellas, one for Roma and one for Venus, Venus is associated with amor which is Roma backwards-palindrome. cella had half dome and floor covered in Hadrians cicles and squares.

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Portrait of Sabina

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

 

Smooth skin and curly hair, looks alsmot as if she is a Greek Goddess.

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The Apotheosis of Sabina

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

 

Shows her cremation, funeral pyer, being carried up to become a god, it has correct proportions, more classical looking

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Standing figure of Antinous

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

Classical profile, not clear if Greek looking bc of Hadrian’s love of Greek things or if he loved him bc he looked Greek, Severe stlye-like Apollo statue, Perfection of his features, Hadrian’s Lover from Bythinia, died in the Nile(sketchy circumstances)Nile gives life and taked it through flooding-so religious death.

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Antinous as Sylvanus

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

 

Depicted as the Roman God of Nature-holding grapes, long hair and blank expression.

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Hadrian Roundel from the Arch of Constantine

Hadrian

117-138CE

Marble

Rome

classical themes not military, incorporated into Constantine arch- bc he wanted to draw parallels between him and Hadrian,Boar hunt Roundel-power and boldness, includes Antinous,

Hadrian’s Wall

Hadrian

117-138CE

Great Britain

 

Hadrian was a sucessful military leader extended into GB, and built the wall to establish boarders of the Roman Empire, and keep Scotland out,It was a fort like wall, w/ towers

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excavated fort at Housesteads

Hadrian

117-138CE

Stone

Houseteads

 

Same layout for all forts from this time- so ppl can find way aournd, Hospital living quarters, mini city, forts were signes that the Roman Empire was in charge here,had shrine to Gods,Good relations with Army=good emperor

 

 

Hadrian Architecture style

Hadrian

117-138CE

Rome

 

combined his personal vision and architetural innovation, circles, squares, segmented domes, large dome spaces, unusual shapes, Palindromes simple seeming front-with worlds largest interior space-Pantheon

The Antonines

 

138-193CE
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Portrait of Antoninus Pius

138-193CE

Antonines

Marble

Rome

 

Adopted by Hadrian, very Pius -respect for Ancestors and Roman way of life-connection to Aneas,had beard like Hadrian, following his example, eyes are drilled-importance of soul increasing,

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Temple of Divine Hadrian

138-193CE

Antonines

Marble and tufa

Rome

 

Shows his pius nature-respecting Hadrian, corinthian coulumns, classical inspired statues that are allegorical Rome Britian (location they represent shown in outfits), now the stock excahnge.

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Portrait of Faustina the Elder

Antonines

138-193 CE

Marble

Rome

 

Drilled eyes to show soul, very devoted wife, hair trend-bun on top, died young.

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Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble and tufa

Rome

 

Temple built just for Faustina at first, Antoninus added after he died, high platform , frontality=Roman,

Antininous Pius-sucsessors

Marcus Aurelius-philosopher, live the best life you can today, deep thinker, millitary man, worried about Rome,stoic philosopher(love everyone but cant be in love with anyone, inside everyobne is a fountain of good) so he hated the wars, book on meditations of MArcus Aurelius, his thoughts on suffering, life,

 

Lucius Verus-not take job seriously and died young

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Fayum Portrait

Antonines

138-193CE

Painted wood

Fayum

 

placed with preserved /mumified bodies, wanted body to be reconizable as the person who died, looks like hadrian-beard, curly hair, preseved due to weather of region.

 

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Marcus Aurelius Equestrian Statue

Antonines

138-193CE

Bronze

Rome

 

most famous and only complete equestrian statue from antiquity,preserved bc wrongly identified as Constintine

statue is Marcus addressing troops, before battle, reminicent of Augustus(shoes and cape), huge horse able to be controlled with one hand, =power. Had curly hair and bead-Hadrian, worried eyes, ruled in time of turmoil-did not take that lightly,

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Column base of Antoninus Pius side 1

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

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Monument made after Antoninus died in his memory, the carved base is all that remains,

Side1. Apotheosis of Antoninus and wife, Allegorical figure of Campus Martinus and Roma, classicalbc of religious context.

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Column base of Antoninus Pius side 2

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

 

Monument made after Antoninus died in his memory, the carved base is all that remains,

 

Side2. Military exercise, Pleblian style figers propotinalty larger than horses, veiw from above and in front of it, real event=plebian

 

Cracks in Empire
reached greatest amount of land during Trajen,fought barbarians at Rhine, Danube and Euphraates plague spreading
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Column of Marcus Aurelius

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

 

Main difference from trajen is message-war is hell not the glory of war. His stoic philosophy made war difficult to justify. Beheading of reble Germans-no one going gladly to death and the Romans look like brutes, emphasis on frontality, plebian style, impressonistic rendering.

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Column of Marcus Aurelius Image 2

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

 

Snatching children from German women and takeing them to become slave/die, Romans look like Brutes

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Column of Marcus Aurelius Miracle of the Rain

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

after the Germans revolted again did not look like they would win then the rain started and flooded out many of the German troops, Rain is personified, won not by strength but by luck of the gods.

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Indian triumph of Bacchus Sarcophagus

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

Increase in reliance on spirituality and Western religions due to unstable times, shows Bacchus journrey through india(the East) his followers were promised a plesant after life, indian elephants, vase in middle facing viewer-skill

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Bust of Commodus as Hercules

Antonines

138-193CE

Marble

Rome

 

insane, Marcus Aurelius’s mistake-naming him ruler, believed he was Hercules, wanted to change name of rome and the months, ignored army and barbarians to focus on athletics(kill ostirches) Lion pelt hood-almost too big-being mocked? after killed, had the Demnoti Memorei

 

 

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Bust of Septimus Severus

Severans

193-235CE

Marble

Rome

 

Millitary leader from north africa Lybia, married daughter of Priest that was prophisised to mary a great leader, Julia Domna, set up new dynasty, beard and curly hair like Hadrian, little gap in middle of beard, wants to refect period of stability(5 good rulers)

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Severan Family Portrait

Severan

193-235 CE

Painted wood

Fayum

 

only portrait of Imperial family to survive, Emphasis on eyes still time of turmoil-soul, show ppl who the rulers are, show family harmony Caracalla Geta Julia Domna and Septimus, Geta has face removed,

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Arch of Septimius Severus

Tri-Partite Arch

Severan

193-235

Travertine and Marble

Rome

 

Tri-Partite Arch celebrates military victory, historical relief sculpture-divided into smaller scenes by panels. Plebian style, fitting in as much info as possible, calls back to the column of Marcus Aurelius through the use of the Panels.

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Bust of Julia Domna

Severans

193-235CE

Marble

Rome

 

large curled hair , evil look in the eyes, scheaming

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Tetrapylon of Septimus Severus

Severans

193-235CE

Marble

Leptis Magna Libya

 

4 sided elaborate arch. had Victories on the sides, located at the cross-roads of 2 roads, historical relief at the top-triumphal procession also had scrifice relief.

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Tetrapylon of Septimus Severus Triumphal procession

Severans

193-235CE

Marble

Leptis Magna Libya

 

historical relief at the top-triumphal procession in plebian style-tiny horses in comparison to humans, many views at once, with the emperor facing one way and his charriot another, deep slashes in the robes uses the light to dreate shadows,

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Tetrapylon of Septimus Severus Sacrifice

Severans

193-235CE

Marble

Leptis Magna Libya

 

sacrifice relief-scrifice of bull before Imperial fam. deep carved folds of robes, row behind other row=depth, classical and plebian.

Forum of Septimus Severus

Severans

193-235CE

Concrete and marble

Leptis Magna Libya

 

Bassilica on one side temple on the other, surrounded by collonade arcade w/ heads of Medusa(wiht deeply etched eyes) on corinthian columns, arches, Bassilica-roofed building with aisles, used for lower courts shopping entered on long side,

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Peopled Scrolls

Severans

193-253CE

Stone

Leptis Magna, Libya

 

Filled with mythological beings

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Portrait of Caracalla

Severans

193-235

marble

Rome

 

Angry scowle not want to come off as weak- wanted to differentiate hisself from his fathers “Good and peacful” image, v ecthed into brow and frowning mouth almost makes and x across his face, close cropped hair to look more miliitary,

Portrait of Caracalla (Egypt)

Severans

193-253CE

Red Granite

Coptus Egypt

 

more styalized portrait, took out humanizing feartures reduced to basicsjsut the v brow and frown,

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Baths of Caracalla

Severans

193-235 CE

Concrete,Brick, Marble

Rome

one of the largest imperial baths, huge garden section, out doing previous Emperors, made everyday ppl feel special when taking daily bath, made using arches and vaults, had many images of Herculese and water and health divinities, all sculpture set up on a visual axis

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Plan of the Baths of Caracalla

Severans

193-235 CE

Concrete,Brick, Marble

Rome

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Hercules Farnese by Lysippos

Severans

193-235CE

Roman Copy

Rome

 

very large man leaning on club and lion skin, Lysippos forced viewer to engage with the art bc you had to walk around to see apples in his hands to understand that he is tired from finishing the last of his 12 labors, Caracalla loved Herculean sculptures bc he Identified with him

Caracalla’s Policies

-increased army pay 50% (backfired bc they just kept asking for more)

-paid barbarians to keep away from the boarders(the large taxes agangered the people)

-extended citizenship to everyone that was free born to get more money(Suddenly having to pay taxes angered ppl)

 

Diocletian’s policies

-Soliders highest citizens not the aristocracy

-more generals and fewer troops(chose loyal men and did not give them troops big enough to take over)

-Senate recued to city council

-set max prices for things(not really work,ppl bartered instead)

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Tetrarchs Statue

307-337CE

Constantine

Stone

Rome

 

showed 4 rulers, not portraits but more like generic ppl, they are holding on to one another as if they give eachother suppourt even if they are far apart, they have hands on the hilts of sword, ready to defend the empire.

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Portrait of Constantine

Constantine

307-337CE

Marble

Rome

 

styelized, huge eyes=large emphasis on spirituality and the soul bc of the instability of the times, Blocky face to show his strenght and power, very frontal style-Roman, eyes looking to the sky(Greek Gods)

 

 

End of Pagenism
before winning battle at bridge, see burning cross in dream, make Christianity acceptable, before death, converted, Theodosius shut down ancient shrines, the Olypmic games to Zeus(Jupiter)
5 good rulers
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Arulius
Water Heating for baths
Hypocaust system- made while trying to make  warm water for oysters, uses a wood burning furnace  that makes hot air flow up to tiled floor the heat would rise up through the hollow tiles, in walls and when you added water it made steam
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Arch of Constantine

Constantine

307-337

Marble

Rome

 

Used style of arch of septimus sererus and relief from other emperors monumnets to draw connections and show his worthiness, had mainly plebian style for original parts, guy reading-beginig of byzantine style-focus on the mind and learning

 

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