classic civ final

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vulgar latin
Spoken Latin, used in end of Classical period. we don’t have any texts in it. Knowledge is reconstructed from various sources (romance languages descend from this type of Latin).
romance languages
Languages that descend from Vulgar Latin (street Latin). Most familiar: Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Rumanian, Catalan, Provencal.
dropping a syllable in a word. Happened all the time going from Latin to Romance languages.
distinct morphological forms of a word. It is what happened when the romance languages were forming. a lot of cases merged into one. Word order became really important once you lose your case distinction (“man bites dog/dog bites man”). Cant just change ending on a noun/verb. More and more prepositions were being used.
appendix probi
First of the texts that have a Grammarian editing Latin. Grammatical works by Probus, this is tacked on at the end in an appendix. A couple hundred little corrections by this grammarian. “X non Y”→ X is correct, Y is incorrect.
notes in the margin or between lines of a text, sometimes in another language
Reichenau Glosses
8th century: Vulgate Bible with marginal notes of the meaning of certain words. Latin translation of Bible. Words were picked out that were found difficult and wrote out what he would have used the words for. Most closely resembles an early version of French.
1453 AD; Started after Renaissance: newfound love of Classical latin, what has been written since. Resembles Classical Latins, wasn’t pure Classical because new technology and events had led to new vocab. NEOOOO…bananananana…SPORIN…banaNA! Over time, teachings and writings of Erasmus and others, feeling was if you are going to write in Latin, you have to do it well.
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish doctor/botanist who wrote all his works in Latin. Scientifically classified the living world using binomial nomenclature. Began with the publishing of Systema Natvrae (system of nature- 12000 species).
binomial nomenclature
Simple Latin system developed by Linnaeus to identify the living world to replace the old system with long words that were cumbersome and hard to remember. Concise label for any organism. Seems fancy now but in his day, B.N. was just simple, concise Latin.
Indo-European >> Indo-Iranian >> Indo-Aryan and Iranian >> Indo-Aryan leads to Sanskrit

The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It consists of three language groups: the Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani.

Comes from Indo-Iranian. Synonymous to Indic. Comes from Sanskrit work “arya”– means noble or honorable. Self designation of ancient Indic and Iranian peoples (Iran is land of Aryans). Leads to Sanskrit.
The Indo-Iranians were the most ancient known speakers of Indo-European languages, the word Aryan was adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian people, but also to Indo-European speakers as a whole.

Not from Northern Europe with blonde hair and blue eyes like Nazis said.

Classical language of india. The language of the Rigveda. Sanskrit as one of the oldest attestation of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family
The oldest text is sacred Rigveda. 3rd largest religion in the world. Main religion of Indian subcontinent. Many scriptures in theology, mythology, etc. Belief in reincarnation and karma
(1200 BC)- sacred text, collection of hymns to various gods.
-written in Vedic Sanskrit
-Manuscripts usually don’t last long in the hot, humid climate of India so Rigveda is exceptional
vedic sanskrit
language of the rigveda. it is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language.
classical sanskrit
500 BC
-philosophical emphasis on grammar
—Panini- wrote most detailed description of an ancient language that we possess
-by the time Panini was writing, modern languages in India were already forming via Prakrits
maha= great bharata=a king

one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India. The epic is part of the Hindu “history”, and forms an important part of Hindu mythology.

One of the longest epics composed. 10 times longer than Iliad and Odyssey combined!!

refers to the broad family of the Indo Aryan languages and dialects spoken in ancient India after Sanskrit. The Prakrits became literary languages. Prakrit is foremost a native term, designating “vernaculars” as opposed to Sanskrit.
omprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most of the major languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, much of Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-European group has the largest numbers of speakers of the recognised families of languages in the world today, with its languages spoken by approximately three billion native speakers
proto indo European
The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
sir william jones
an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. First to observe that Sanskrit resembled Latin and Greek.
language of ancient romans. one of many Italian languages (Oscan, etc)
254-184 BC – playwrite, 20 of his plays survived, it’s the largest and earliest big chunk of literary Latin. His plays are, together, the same size of Iliad and Odyssey. Double position, occupies older stage of languages but he also wrote comedies which are naturally more colloquial so it gives us a better idea of how Romans spoke
Iguvine Tables
Named after town Iguvium discovered in the year 1444, bronze tablets actually found nine but claimed to have lost 2 during transfer to museum. Written in Umbrian, consists of instructions about how to conduct religious rituals. Biggest piece of evidence about how Native Italian religion was practiced.
south Picene
language in Italian area. very interesting example of the breakthrough we are making in understand the script. Originally assumed South Picene was separated by interpuncts (dots to separate words), but only a few decades ago did we realize that only the triple dot was a space. Single dot meant “o” and a double dot meant “f”. Suddenly we are able to read the stuff (not perfectly). Words pairs are alliteration, native Italian poetry. Appears that there are 7 syllables in each line.
Language further South than Umbrian. Loose assortment of people that we don’t know too much about. Most famous cuty was Pompei. Reads from R→L things that looks like R is actually a D and D is actually an R.
extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. It is closely related to Oscan. Similar to Latin, also derived from Etruscan alphabet.
The term is most commonly used to refer to the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. Italic languages come from Indo-European and includes the romance languages.
comparative philology/comparative lingusitics
Same thing. branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. Languages may be related by convergence through borrowing or by genetic descent. Try to construct proto-languages, etc
linguistic reconstruction
the practice of establishing the features of the unattested ancestor (proto-language) of one or more given languages. can be either internal reconstruction (figuring out an earlier form of the same language) or comparative (2 or more languages) using comparative method
comparative method
a technique used by linguists to demonstrate genetic relationships between languages. It aims to prove that two or more historically attested languages are descended from a single hypothethical proto-language by comparing lists of cognate terms.

are the similarities due to chance, universal, etc. If you can exclude all of the below reasons for similarity, they are probably related languages.
–4 ways for common words between languages (reduces variety across languages):
-chance: only certain number of speech sounds that human voice can produce

a language which was the common ancestor of related languages that form a language family. assumptions about the proposed language are usually based on comparative method.
a word in different languages that have the same origin and often represent the same thing . You can compare the cognate set across different languages to determine if they are related.
Jacob grimm
German, early/mid 19th century, a linguist. He got very interested in history of German languages, then other related languages. One of first people to do systematic comparisons.
Grimm’s law
a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic.

established regular correspondence between germanic stops and other indo-european stops.

3 rules:
(you do not talk about fight club)
-Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives.
-Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.
-Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced fricatives; ultimately, in most Germanic languages these voiced fricatives become voiced stops.

in english: : p>>f t>>th k>>h

historical name given to the part of Great Britain in which the laws of the Danes dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

The origins of the Danelaw arose from the Viking expansion of the 9th century, although the term was not used to describe a geographic area until the 11th century.

Danelaw is also used to describe the set of legal terms and definitions created in the treaties between the English king, Alfred the Great, and the Danish warlord, Guthrum the Old.

sound change (law)
any process of language change that affect pronunciation or phonological change. can be the replacement of one speech sound by another, the complete loss of the affected sound, and rarely the introduction of a new sound in a place where there previously was none.
the term sound law was introduced by the Neogrammarian school in the 19th century and is commonly applied to some historically important sound changes, such as Grimm’s law
A vowel change, characteristic of Indo-European languages, that accompanies a change in grammatical function.
for example, i, a, u in sing, sang, sung (also called gradation)
Alfred the Great
king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899…or just England
Convinced Old English was as capable as Latin to be used for lang of literature
-Did this through his own writings
one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature, Old English heroic epic poem of unknown authorship, dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between the 8th and early 11th century
Geoffrey Chaucer
father of English literature, credited as first author to demonstrate the artistic legitimacy of the vernacular English language, rather than French or Latin. best known for being will’s butler.

wrote The Canterbury Tales, translated important works.

wrote in continental accentual-syllabic metre, a style which had developed since around the twelfth century as an alternative to the alliterative Anglo-Saxon metre.

Chaucer’s language is much closer to modern English than the text of Beowulf

Great English Vowel Shift
major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in the south of England between 1200 and 1600.

first studied by Otto Jespersen (1860–1943), a Danish linguist and Anglicist, who coined the term.

one of the historical events marking the separation of Middle and Modern English.

responsible for many of the peculiarities of English spelling.

two highest long vowels became diphthongs, and the other five underwent an increase in tongue height with one of them coming to the front.

Vikings (Danes, Norsemen)
norsemen: speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language. people from “the north” (primarily Nordic people originating from southern and central Scandinavia).

danes: ancient North Germanic tribe residing in modern day southern Sweden and on the Danish islands. first vikings to be known all over the world. assaulted great britain/ireland around 800 AD

viking: word disappeared in Middle English, and was reintroduced as Viking during 18th century Romanticism (the “Viking revival”).
the period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.
adrian peterson, gus frerotte, etc.

textual criticism
concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts.
Ancient scribes often made errors or alterations when copying manuscripts by hand.
Given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic seeks to reconstruct the original text as closely as possible.
critical edition
The textual critic’s ultimate objective is the production of a “critical edition”. contains a text most closely approximating the original. includes apparatus criticus
apparatus criticus
critical and primary source material that accompanies an edition of a text. A critical apparatus is often a by-product of textual criticism.

presents: record of rejected variants, evidence editor considered, editor’s analysis of that evidence

gathering, ordering, and organizing the manuscript and whatever else you have
Looking through various manuscripts and determining the most trustworthy version. may include process of constructing a stemma
witness, variant
different documents, or “witnesses”, of a single, original text, the observed differences are called variant readings, or simply variants or readings. It is not always apparent which single variant represents the author’s original work. The process of textual criticism seeks to explain how each variant may have entered the text, either by accident (duplication or omission) or intention (harmonization or censorship), as scribes or supervisors transmitted the original author’s text by copying it

Witness-any manuscript that you have that preserves any part of the original text

“family tree”, which shows the relationships of the surviving witnesses, and a possible archetype.

process of constructing a stemma is called recension. famous marlon brando line (“hey stemmaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!”)

original edition of a particular work, written or dictated by the author. It is the earliest copy from which all later copies are ultimately descended (it may not be the latest copy from which the manuscripts descend).
in most instances it is what the textual critic would like to reconstruct. usually goes for twenty bucks on ebay
direct ancestor from which a particular group of copies is derived. almost always lost in critical literature
any kind of erroneous transmission

could be :1. simple misreading, mis-divide of a sequence of letters
2. Changes in spelling due to changes in pronunciation
3. Omissions- phrase repeats itself a line lower and you skip what’s in between,

act of writing once what should be written twice. For example, the English word idolatry, the worship of idols, comes from the Greek eidololatreia, but one syllable has been lost through haplography.

normal punctuation mark for a declarative sentence in English is a period. However, if a declarative sentence ends with a word that is abbreviated with a period (e.g., etc., Ltd., or Inc.), the sentence-final punctuation mark is omitted.

an entry or passage in a text that was not written by the original author. As there are often several generations of copies between an extant copy of an ancient text and the original, each handwritten by different scribes, there is a natural tendency for extraneous material to be inserted into such documents over time.
the accidental, erroneous act of repeating a word, phrase or combination of letters by a scribe or copyist.
lectio difficilior
“harder reading”. in textual reconstruction, the idea that, of two alternative manuscript readings, the one whose meaning is less obvious is less likely to be a copyist’s alteration, and therefore should be given precedence.
point of significant corruption in a literary text. More serious than a simple slip of the pen or typographical error, a crux (probably deriving from Latin crux interpretum = “crossroad of interpreters”) is difficult or impossible to interpret and resolve.
The state of old manuscripts or inscriptions which have weathered or been damaged sometimes gives rise to lacunae — passages consisting of a word or words that are missing or illegible. Palimpsests are particularly subject to lacunas. In order to reconstruct the original text, the context is to be considered. In archaeology and literary criticism this may sometimes lead to competing reconstructions and consequent interpretations. “lacuna matata” nominating for a grammy
A palimpsest is a manuscript page, whether from scroll or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again.
Angles, Saxons and Jutes
Invaded England and created “english nation”
-Not much known about the differences btwn theses groups
-Came in various waves, starting around 400 CE
-They spoke closely related Germanic dialects
Old English
main language spoken under Alfred the Great. an early form of the English language that was spoken and written in parts of what are now England and south-eastern Scotland between the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. What survives through writing represents primarily the literary register of Anglo-Saxon.
cognate set
set of words across different languages that have the same origin. the definitions and spelling dont necessarily have to resemble each other, but they often do
regularity of sound correspondences
From cognate sets, regular sound correspondences between the languages are established, and a sequence of regular sound changes can then be postulated which allows the proto-language to be reconstructed from its daughter languages
Norman French
Romance language. The Norse settled in Normandy. Began speaking this early Norman language with many words borrowed from Norse. Invaded England. People living there only knew Latin and French. Norman French was used in court and formally. After 200 years of Norman reign, many French words made their way into English.
Middle English
the diverse forms of the English language spoken during the Norman invasion (1066-1470)ish. Unlike Old English, there were many forms of Middle English.
shared error
more than one manuscript that contain a similar error (most likely are descendent of the same manuscript where that shared error originated)
-Inference or judgment based on inconclusive or incomplete evidence; guesswork.
in textual criticism, when the manuscript doesnt make sense, the attempt to imagine what the author actually wrote and write that instead.
umm when a manuscript is contaminated?
Ptolemy Philadelphus
Second Ptolemaic king of Egypt. Ptolemy established house of muses, where the Library of Alexandria was established. Before it was established it was still intended to be a center of learning. He wanted to have the biggest collection of manuscripts. He hired people to go around collecting literature.
Library of Alexandria
Was once the largest library of the ancient world. The first known library of its kind to gather a serious collection of books from beyond its country’s borders, the Library at Alexandria was charged with collecting all the world’s knowledge. It did so through an aggressive and well-funded royal mandate involving trips to book fairs across the world.
Museum of alexandria
also created by Ptolemy. Rather than simply a museum in the sense that has developed since the Renaissance, it was an institution that brought together some of the best scholars work. No sculptures or paintings but lots of music, poetry, and sacred texts.
(200-100 BC) librarian of Alexandria, basically produced the texts of Homer that came down to us. Librarians had mission of going through all the copies of it and finding out what the original really was. he was a GRAMMARIAN!
archaeological site in upper egypt (south of cairo). considered one of the most important arch sites. lots of papyrus texts found there from the Ptolemic and Roman periods of Egypt.
a reed crossed perpendicularly, made scrolls out of them, almost always only written on one side. an average of 20 feet long. downside: had to roll it to find your spot.
Rival library of the library of Alexandria. Small kingdom in Asia Minor.
-200 BC had a series of rulers very interested in learning, decided they would set-up rival library
-At its height had 200,000 writings, mostly Greek works
-Came to end in 41BC when Marc Antony took whole library and gave it to Cleopatra
-Name of city Pergamum is where our word parchment comes from .
Wasn’t until Christian era when parchment made rise. Thin material made from animal skin. Used for pages of codex.
a manuscript page, whether from scroll or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. most palimpsests are found on parchment.
mammal skin prepared for writing or printing on single pages, scrolls, codices or books. It is generally thin, smooth and durable, although there are great variations depending on preparation, the quality of the skin, and the type of animal. wetted and dried to create tension.
wax tablet
only practical for note taking and administrative purposes. made from wood covered with wax.
a book in the format used for modern books, with separate pages normally bound together and given a cover. It was a Roman invention that replaced the scroll. You can write on both sides of the leaves (maybe not on early papyrus codexs) normally made of parchment.

-seems like actually an invention of early Christians

a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Revival of learning based on classical sources.

Rebirth of Classical Learning- ushered in an interest in original versions of texts and primary sources, defining characteristic of humanism, rediscovery of classical learning, learning is to be achieved rational thought and not through received wisdom and religious dogma. Great interest in going through monestaries and finding lost texts

Poggio Bracciolini
one of the most important Italian humanists–big player in rennaisance. He recovered a great number of classical texts, mostly lying forgotten in German and French monastic libraries, and disseminated copies among the educated world.
Desiderius Erasmus
humanist and classical scholar. Guiding light of textual criticism study, refined methods to today’s methods. wrote in “pure Latin” style. Using humanist techniques he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament.
a member of the European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century during the Renaissance. The humanist movement developed from the rediscovery by European scholars of many Latin and Greek texts. Originally meant someone who taught Latin but became much more than that: grammar, morality, etc.
Shang Dynasty
1766-1045 BC. ruled region called “china proper”. direct info from oracle bones, first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.
oracle bones
pieces of bone or turtle shell heated and cracked during divination, chiefly during the late Shang, and then typically inscribed with a record of the divination, in what is known as oracle bone script. The oracle bones are the earliest known significant corpus of ancient Chinese writing, and contain important historical information such as the complete royal genealogy of the Shang dynasty. These records confirmed the existence of the Shang dynasty, which some scholars, until then, had doubted ever existed.
part of a Chinese character under which it is indexed in a dictionary (section headers). some have applied the term radical not to the original root of a character, but to any portion bearing meaning. Portion of Chinese character with semantic element.
Qieyun rime dictionary
ancient type of Chinese dictionary used for writing poetry or other genre requiring rhymes. It collates characters by rime and tone, instead of radical. The first extant rime dictionary is Qieyun from the Sui Dynasty (Middle Chinese).
Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with kana scripts, Arabic numerals, and the occasional use of the Latin alphabet. The Japanese term kanji literally means “Han characters”. In modern Japanese, kanji are used to write parts of the language such as nouns, adjective stems and verb stems. 80,000+ characters. More formal than kana system.
general term for the syllabic Japanese scripts hiragana and katakana as well as the old system known as mangana. These were developed from the logographic characters of Kanji. kana characters are written out phonetically and are usually more simple and rounded characters compared to kanji. kana was basis for collation in Japanese
native alphabet of the Korean language. created in the mid-fifteenth century, and is now the official script of both North Korea and South Korea. phonemic alphabet organized into syllabic blocks. individual phonemes clustered into a syllable, rather than organized in a horizontal line as in English
King Sejong
fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. Best remembered for creating the Korean alphabet hangul, despite strong opposition from the scholars educated in hanja (Chinese script). presided over the introduction of the 28 letters of the Korean alphabet in order that Koreans from all classes could read and write. He also attempted to establish a cultural identity of his people through a unique script. First published in 1446, anyone could learn hangul in a matter of days. It was banned under the Japanese occupation.
At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world. Known for their early and complete written language system.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. Look similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs but not at all related.
Vladimir (Yuri) Knorosov
A Russian linguist and ethnographer who played a major role in deciphering the Maya script. He figured out that it was in fact a syllabary not an alphabet. He also determined that like, cuneiform and Egyptian heiroglyphs, there was also a phonetic component to the language.
Dresden Codex
ancient Mayan book that is thought to be the oldest written in the Americas. The pages were made from fig-bark. Contained an almanac, astrological tables, religious practices, etc.
A Cherokee Indian who invented the Cherokee syllabary in the early 1800’s.
Relatively undeciphered language from 3000 BC. Most likely direct predecessor of Linear Elamite. Used before the introduction of Elamite cuneiform.
Linear Elamite
Only 22 known documents in Linear Elamite. Still undeciphered and unsure if it came directly from proto-Elamite. Some object are bilingual with Akkadian script as well.
Indus Valley civilization
Part of Ancient India. One of the worlds three earliest civilizations along with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Located in current Pakistan/India.
indus valley civilization (harappan culture)
2600-1900 BC. Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world’s three earliest urban civilizations along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. The mature phase of this civilization is technically known as the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be unearthed: Harappa in Pakistan. language of IVC unknown. system of uniform weights/math. tiny symbols, 400 symbols, no more than 4/5 in a row usually
Indus Valley script (Harappan script)
still undeciphered. short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, in use during the Mature Harappan period. some early scholars thought the script was the archetype of the Brahmi script
“mound of the dead” one of the largest, very developed city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. built around 2600 BC. rediscovered in 1922 AD, many artifacts found.
Linear A
Syllabary used in Crete before Linear B around 1900-1800 BC or earlier. Linear A is far from being totally deciphered but it is partially understood and it may be read through Linear B values, although graphic similarities between two scripts do not necessarily imply a linguistic unit.
Undeciphered system of writing or proto-writing discovered on the Polynesian island of Easter Island. Could be one of the few independent inventions of writing in the history of the world. Only 2 dozen wooden inscriptions, not in great condition.
Old testament
Religious documents put together over a long period of time (12th-2nd century BCE)
-first major translation occurred in the library of Alexandria>>>Hebrew into Greek
-this translation that was in circulation btwn Alexandrian Jews was not that same as other editions in Palestine and East
meant that 6 scholars from each of 12 tribes of Israel translated Old Testament into Greek. The books translations were pretty good but in truth were all different (still used in Eastern Orthodox churches)
-partly written in Aramaic
-also includes some books not in the Hebrew bible
priest who was familiar with Hebrew version of Old Testament and he decided that the Hebrew versions were actually better for Christians and more accurate that the Septuagint. He derived editions based on Hebrew versions in Israel/Palestine (different versions than what the Septuagint was based off of)
-translated the Vulgate
created by Jerome and meant to be more accessible to common people in language and such. Completed around 405 CE. Quite different from Septuagint mainly because the Hebrew originals were different and Sep. translating was poor. Vulgate became standard Latin translation of Bible and used for long time after.
The Jewish Bible: Torah. The founding religious document of Judaism. Separated into 5 books.
It is the oldest of the four sources of the Torah, whose narratives make up half of Genesis and the first half of Exodus, plus fragments of Numbers. God is referred to in human-like ways and called YHWH. Many similarities with Elohist.
Another one of the 4 sources of the Torah. God is referred to as Elohim and is less human-like than YHWH god.
One of the sources of the Torah. God seems much more distant and punishing–“Old Testament God”. Big emphasis on genealogy.
After destruction of Jewish temple by the Romans, there was a need for an authoritative version of Jewish scriptures because many documents were destroyed. The Masoretes were Jewish priests, scholars and scribes who set out using the versions they had to create an authoritative version and called it the Masoretic text.
Masoretic text
The authoritative version of Jewish scriptures that was created by Masoretes.
-needed to agree on vowels and pronunciation especially since many of the words weren’t often used anymore
-different groups had different ideas of how to do it, but there were many differences
-Masoretic text became standard
-very similar to Dead Sea scrolls and what Jerome was working with
Synoptic Gospels
First 3 books of the New Testament.

-Mark, Matthew, and Luke
-share stories from common source
-same point of view
-all tell story of Jesus

An italic language. There are two varieties of latin: Classical latin, the literary dialect used in poetry and prose and Vulgar latin, the form of the language spoken by ordinary people. The Romance languages evolved from Latin.
The italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European lanugage family. It includes the Romance languages and a number of extinct languages of the Intalian Peninsula, including Latin, Umbrian and Oscan
Lived during the Archaic Latin period from (254-184) He wrote plays of which 20 survived. He was one of the the largest and earliest writers of the latin, as he had a significant amount of lines. He was a good source of info about early latin and he wrote comedies, which showed how they actually spoke not just how people wrote.
An extinct language formerly spoken in the ancient italian region of Umbria. It is closely related to Oscan. Umbrian is known from a small amount of inscriptions, the largest being the Iguvine Tables.
Iguvine Tables
Set of 7 bronze tables that were discovered in a town called Iguvium, Italy in the year 1444. They are written in Umbrian and include instructions on how to perform religious rituals directed at set of religious brothers. They are they are large source which shows how native Italic religious was performed. It is a monoligual inscription and almost all we have of the Umbrian language.
South Picene
An extinct Italic language. The decipherment of S. Picene was in 1987. They were finally able to translate it after figuring out the interpuncts. Interpuncts are a system of dots. They had originally thought all the dots were just interpuncts and had no other meaning. But they realized that only triple dots were really interpuncts and that a single dot was really an o and a double dot was an F.
Closely related to South Picene. The Oscan were a loose assortment of people and we don’t have much about their culture, politics ect… but the language is decently known. Found a large number of instructions in Pampay which was their most important city. You read Oscan right to left, and there letter have flipped values. Ex. R=D and D=R.

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