CLAS1020: Classical Mythology, Exam 4

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An oracle told Acrisius he would be killed by whom?
the son of Danae
Where was Danae trapped by her father?
in a tower
Zeus appeared to Danae as what?
a shower of gold
Danae and Zeus had a son named _____.
Perseus
One day when Perseus was playing, Acrisius heard the boy’s giggles and placed Danae and her son in _____.
a chest that he threw into the sea
At what island did Danae and Perseus arrive?
the island Seriphos on the Aegean Sea
What was the kind fisherman’s name who released Danae and Perseus?
Dictys
What was the name of Dictys’s brother? What was he like?
Polydectes; arrogant king who loved Danae
Was Dictys a good or bad man?
good: kind, humble
Polydectes summoned all of his nobles and Perseus (randomly), instructing each of them to bring him a ____.
horse
Perseus is not a noble and tells Polydectes that he might as well have asked him to bring the king ____; Polydectes agrees to this, obligating Perseus to complete the task.
the head of a Gorgon
Hermes and Athena advise Perseus to go to the ____ to inquire as to the Gorgons’ whereabouts.
Graiai (they are the sisters of the Gorgons)
What 3 magical objects does Perseus need from the nymphs?
cap of invisibility, winged shoes to fly, kibisis (messenger’s bag)
When the Graiai will not disclose their sisters’ location, Perseus takes what objects from them?
their 1 shared eye and 1 shared tooth
Where are the Gorgons?
North Africa (Libya)
Hermes gives Perseus what object?
Zeus’s sickle (crescent-shaped sword)
How does Perseus defeat Medusa?
He uses his shield to deflect Medusa’s petrifying glare, which causes her to turn herself into stone.
Where does Perseus put Medusa’s head?
into his kibisis (the messenger’s bag)
Who were born from the neck of Medusa?
Pegasus & Chrysaor
Blood from Medusa’s head drips through the kibisis as Perseus is flying home and creates what reptile?
the poisonous snake that is found on the sands of Libya
Perseus requests hospitality from what Titan? Why does he encounter this Titan?
Atlas; he is holding up the vault of heaven in North Africa (Libya), after Perseus has defeated the Gorgons
Upon declining Perseus’s request, what happens to Atlas?
Perseus shows him the head of Medusa and he is turned to stone; this creates the Atlas Mountains
King Abas had two children: ____ & ____.
Proteus (King of Tiryns) & Acrisius (King of Argos)
Why did Acrisius lock Danae in a tower?
to keep her pure; he did not want her to be impregnated by any men
How many Gorgons are mortal?
only 1, Medusa; the other 2 are immortal
Perseus sets down the leaking kibisis on a bed of seaweed, which then hardens from Medusa’s blood. This creates ____.
coral
Cepheus marries Cassiopeia and they have a daughter named ____.
Andromeda
Cassiopeia was a beautiful, vain queen who bragged of her beauty. In response to her bragging, her husband’s kingdom was flooded. What did her husband, Cepheus, do in response?
went to the oracle of Zeus Amon in Egypt who then told Cepheus to offer his daughter, Andromeda, to sea monsters
What did the oracle of Zeus Amon tell Cepheus?
to offer his daughter, Andromeda, to sea monsters
Perseus tells Cepheus that he will take care of the sea monsters in exchange for what?
Andromeda as a wife
Andromeda has already been promised to Phineus, who starts an army. Perseus and Phineus go to war. Who wins?
Perseus; he petrifies Phineus’s army with Medusa’s head
Perseus and Andromeda have a son named ____.
Perses
Perseus returns home with Andromeda, leaving Perses, because ____.
his mother, Danae, is being held by her father, King Acrisius
To whom does Perseus give Medusa’s head?
Athena
Abas, father of Proteus and Acrisius, has died. How does Acrisius die?
Perseus accidentally kills him doing the discus throw
Where does Acrisius’s dad, Abas live? (This is the location to where Perseus travels, as well as the location where both Abas and Acrisius die.)
Larissa
Perseus trades kingdoms with ____. He then becomes the king of ____.
his uncle Megapenthes; Tiryns
The Greeks envision their gods as ____.
superhumans
Romans have a more ____ thinking about their gods; for example, they can have animal forms or be pure spirits.
abstract
Roman gods are associated with more ____ than myth. What does this entail?
cult; the religious worship and performance of religious acts (the Romans had a lot more festivals and their worship of the gods was much more defined.)
The Romans are syncretists; what does this mean?
They are able to take their gods and identify them with gods from other cultures.
The Romans adopted Greek myths wholly as a result of ____.
Greek colonization of Southern Italy
Greek slaves became educators of whom?
the Roman upper class
There was an influx of Greek slaves due to what historical event?
the Greek War
We see a steady influence of ____ in Roman society.
Greek values, literature, and philosophy
From the 3rd century B.C.E. on, you have a lot of ____ influence in ____.
Greek; Rome
Some cities in ____ were forced to send hostages to ____.
Greece; Rome
What is the entymology of the god Janus’s name?
‘ianua,’ meaning ‘door’
What god is always listed first in formal prayers?
Janus
What is Janus the god of?
entering/exiting (goings in/goings out), boundaries, beginnings
What is the origin of the god Janus?
TRICK QUESTION – we don’t know his origin!
How is the god Janus depicted?
with two faces; he’s always looking both forward and backward
Where is the shrine of Janus located and what was its function during the Republic?
near the Forum (place with mercantile activity); it notified the town’s citizens when Rome was at war (its gates were open when Rome was at war and closed when Rome was at peace)
How many times were the gates of Janus’s shrine open?
twice; once was at the end of the 1st Punic War against Carthage, the second was after the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E. (this was the battle in which Octavian Caesar defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra the 7th of Egypt)
Who are the Sabines?
a people who overran Rome and captured the Capitoline Hill, the major governmental hill in Rome
When the Sabines were making their way into the Forum, what happened?
Janus prevented them from entering the Forum by causing jets of boiling water to spring from the ground and burn the Sabines; the Sabines gave up and stopped trying to get into the Forum
Who is the god Janus identified with?
Portunus, the god of harbors
What is the god Mars also known as?
Mavors
What Greek god is Mars identified with?
Ares; however, he is far more important to the Romans than Ares was to the Greeks
Mars is not only a god of war, but a god of ____ as well.
agriculture
What season is the god Mars associated with?
spring, the rising germination and growing of young plants (he has a month, March, named after him)
What was the first month of the year in the pre-Julian calendar?
March
Who does the god Mars hang out with?
Silvanus (god of the forests) & Flora (goddess of flowers)
Who is the god Mars’s female companion?
the nymph Nerio (who is identified with Minerva/Athena)
Why did Mars become a war god?
because of Rome’s history; SEE NOTES!
What is the god Jupiter best known as?
Jupiter Optimus Maximus
With whom is Jupiter’s temple shared?
2 other goddesses, Juno and Minerva
What are Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva together known as?
the Capitoline Triad (all 3 are worshipped together)
Who was Cincinnatus?
a Roman administrator who was originally a farmer; wartime came, he dropped his plow, and accepted his duty to serve his country as a general in the Roman army; when the war was over, he went back to his farm
What god was sacrificed to before and after battles?
Mars
What god was associated with the Augustan clan? As a result, what was built for this god?
Mars; a temple in honor of Mars Ultor (‘Mars the Avenger’)
Who is the female version of Mars?
Bellario (also known as Enyo), the goddess of battles
Romans always envision themselves as ____ with the duty of war thrust upon them.
farmers
Who are the Pales?
gods of livestock, cattles, horses, sheep, pigs, etc.
Who is Flora?
the goddess of flowering
With what is the goddess Flora associated?
the seasons
Who is the goddess Flora’s main consort?
Zephyrus, the god of the west wind
Who is Pomona and what is her origin?
the goddess of fruit which is picked from trees; Etruscan in origin
To which Roman goddess is there no Greek equivalent?
Pomona
Who do the Romans consider to be native, or main gods?
Janus, Mars, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva
Who do the Romans consider to be fire deities?
Vesta, Vulcan, and Cacus
Who do the Romans consider to be agricultural/fertility deities?
Saturn, Ceres, Flora, Pomona, the Pales, and Faunus
Ceres/Demeter is a much more clearly defined goddess in the ____ culture.
Roman
Ceres is the goddess of ____.
the grain before it is actually sown
Who is Tellus?
the goddess of the grain after it is sown and during its growing period
Who is Consus?
the god of the harvest
Ceres is a goddess purely of ____.
the stored seed
Who is Ops/Lua?
the goddess of plenty
To what cult title of Juno’s would Roman women call during the process of childbirth?
Juno Lucina
Minerva is associated with the Greek goddess ____ but is of ____ origin.
Athena; Etruscan
With whom does Minerva share worship?
the god Mars (Ares)
Of what is Athena the goddess?
craftspeople, wisdom (much less grandiose for the Romans than the Greeks), schoolchildren
this festival of Athena and Mars was held during the school holidays
the Quinquatrus
With whom is the goddess Vesta associated?
Hestia
With whom is Vulcan identified?
Hephaestus
Vulcan is also identified with the title ____.
Mulciber
Vulcan originally represented purely ____ fire, not ____ fire.
destructive; creative
What is the difference between Hephaestus (Greek) and Vulcan (Roman)?
Hephaestus makes shields, jewelry, etc. for heroes–and therefore is also representative of creative fire–while Vulcan only destroys.
Who is Cacus?
a minor fire deity (fire-breathing monster who is the son of Vulcan)
Which god has the most famous festival belonging to him? What is it called?
Saturn; the Saturnalia
With whom is Saturn associated?
the goddess Ops/Lua
What is the origin of the god Saturn?
possibly Etruscan
During what period of time was the Saturnalia? With what holiday is it associated?
started on 12/17 and lasted for 12 nights; the Christian festival of Christmas (ex: 12 days of Christmas, get it?!)
Of what is Saturn a god?
the sowing of winter grain
What is perhaps the most interesting aspect of the Saturnalia?
the inversion of social order (kings would have to serve their servants and the servants would behave as kings; frequently you elected a king for the day who would be someone of very low social status, everyone would have to follow what they said)
Of what is Faunus a god?
the forests and the wild animals of the forests
Who is Faunus’s main companion?
Silvanus, god of the forests
When would you make prayers to Silvanus?
before clearing forest land to make room for farmland
With what god are both Faunus and Silvanus associated?
Pan
Who was Heracles a servant to for a year?
a woman named Omphale
What did Heracles and Omphale do together? What was Omphale known for making Heracles do?
hunt and travel; wear women’s clothing
With whom did the god Faunus fall in love? What did he want from her?
Omphale; sex–he planned on raping her
Who did Faunus have sex with?
Heracles (accidentally–Heracles was wearing women’s clothing due to Omphale’s request)
Mars had twin sons by a princess named ____ and ____.
Romulus; Remus
Where did Faunus rape Heracles?
in a cave in Italy where Heracles and Omphale had fallen asleep after they had made love (Heracles was wearing women’s clothing)
Why did the mother of Romulus and Remus expose her twin boys?
because her father did not believe they were sons of Mars and thought that his daughter had illegitimate children
Who took Romulus and Remus in? Where were they raised?
a kind she-wolf; the wolf’s cave, called the Lupercal
The Lupercalia is a festival associated with what?
the sacred cave in which Romulus and Remus were raised/nursed
The priests, called the ____, make a sacrifice during the Lupercalia to the god ____, who is the owner of the cave.
Luperci; Faunus
What clothing do the Luperci wear?
TRICK QUESTION – they are naked so that Faunus knows their gender (in relation to the rape of Heracles)
Once you are struck by one of the leather thongs of the Luperci, you become ____.
fertile
What do the Luperci do during the Lupercalia?
make animal sacrifices, rub/smear animal blood everywhere on the cave of Faunus, whip people with leather thongs
Juno is just like her Greek equivalent, Hera, except that she has more duties in ____.
childbirth
What does ‘Juno Moneta’ stand for?
‘Juno the Advisor’ (a cult title of Juno’s)
Which goddess is associated with money and banking? Why?
Juno; her temple was next to the official mint of the Roman state
What was a town that posed a real threat to the Romans in 396 B.C.E.? What happened to it?
Veii; the Romans beat the Etruscans by offering the goddess of Veii, Juno, a brand new temple and great worship in Rome if she left Veii behind
Who was the original goddess of Veii?
Juno
How did the Romans summon Juno?
priests performed an evocatio
What was the result of the evocatio that the Romans performed in order to summon Juno?
a temple was built in her honor on the Catoline
With whom is Vesta associated?
Hestia
Of what is Vesta a goddess?
the hearth: at a familial, town, and national level
Which goddess serves as a symbol of family life?
Vesta
Who tended Vesta’s fire?
the Vestal Virgins
Who were the Vestal Virgins?
virgins, or young girls who went to live in the temple before the age of 10 years old and would stay there until they were 40; they could then stay on or leave and get married; tended Vesta’s fire
What happened to Vestal Virgins who lost their virginity during their time of duty?
they were buried alive
Which goddess had a prominent temple in the Forum that was partially round (‘tholos’) in shape?
Vesta
Who founded the cult of Vesta?
Numa (a lot of religious establishments are associated with him)
Who was Priapus?
the offspring of Venus by Dionysus, Hermes, Zeus or Pan; considered to be the god of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia
What god fell in love with Vesta?
Priapus
What animal alerted Vesta when Priapus was sneaking up on her in order to rape her?
a donkey
Whenever a sacrifice is made to Priapus, it is a sacrifice of a ____.
donkey (because a donkey betrayed him in his quest to rape Vesta)
What is the ‘Penus Vestae?’
the part of Vesta’s temple in which the Palladium was stored
What is the Palladium?
the little wooden sculpture that Athena made to replace her childhood playmate that she killed (it was thrown from heaven by Zeus)
Troy could not be destroyed as long as it ____.
protected the Palladium
How did the Palladium end up in the Penus Vestae?
Diomedes had it, found his wife with someone else, and moved to Italy; Diomedes gives the Palladium to one of Aeneas’s friends named Nautes after they arrive in Italy; Nautes deposited the Palladium in the Penus Vestae
Who was Caecilius Metellus?
a historial Roman who went into the Penus Vestae to save the Palladium when the temple of Vesta caught fire; went blind because he looked at the Palladium
When looking at the Palladium, what is one supposed to do?
TRICK QUESTION – you cannot look at the Palladium directly, one must close his/her eyes!
When did the burning of Vesta’s temple occur?
241 B.C.E.
What are the steps leading up to Cacus’s cave called?
the Scalae Caci
King Numa, a king of Rome, interpreted what sign as Jupiter being angry?
the strike of lightning against one of Rome’s hills
How is Jupiter often depicted?
riding in a chariot behind his soldiers with his face painted red and a servant holding a wreath above his head
A nymph named ____ told King Numa that he had to capture ____ and ____ in order to learn how to summon Jupiter.
Egeria; Picus and Faunus, two minor deities
King Numa could not stomach ____. He outsmarted Jupiter by ____.
making a human sacrifice; putting words into his mouth
In order to expiate any sins against Jupiter, the Romans sacrificed what 3 objects? What did this represent?
the head of an onion, the hair of a man, and the life of a fish; the end of human sacrifices
Why does Jupiter show Numa great favor? How does he do this?
because he changed the expiation ritual from a human sacrifice into a vegetable/food sacrifice; by fashioning him a shield known as the ‘ancile’
What did the shield that Jupiter wield, the ‘ancile,’ represent?
Roman power
Where was the ‘ancile’ kept?
in the Regia, which was the house of the Pontifax Maximus (the highest priest in Rome)
How did you become the Pontifax Maximus?
you had to be a patrician by blood
How did Numa divert attention away from the real ‘ancile?’
by having 11 fakes made
Who danced with the 11 fake and 1 real ‘anciles?’
the Salii
Who were the children of Perseus and Andromeda?
Perses, Perseides, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon, and one daughter, Gorgophone
What is the name of Electryon’s daughter?
Alcmene or Alcmena
Who was the son of Alcaeus?
Amphitryon
Pterelaus had a ____ that made the Teleboans invincible.
golden hair on his head
How does the war between Pterelaus and Electryon end?
both sides surrender, but Electryon steals Pterelaus’s cattle as he retreats, which pisses Electryon off
Who kills Electryon?
Amphitryon (by accident)
Amphitryon leaves Mycenae with Alcmena to go into exile at ____. Alcmena would not sleep with him until he completed what task?
Thebes; avenged the death of her brothers, who were killed by the Teleboans
Alcmena is impregnated with twins named Heracles and Iphicles. What is the catch?
one twin is by her husband, Amphitryon; the other is by Zeus, who appeared to her as her husband; therefore, one twin is a demi-god (Heracles)
What does Zeus appear to Alcmena as?
her husband, Amphitryon
How do Alcmena and Amphitryon know that the “fake” Amphitryon was Zeus?
they are told it is so by Tiresias
Who was Linus? What happened to him and why?
the music teacher of Heracles; he was killed when Heracles beat him in the head with a lyre due to his harsh criticisms of Heracles’s progress in learning music
Who is Thespius?
a king whose territory is being ravaged by the Nemean Lion
Who does Thespius ask to kill the Nemean Lion?
Heracles
What was Heracles originally named?
Alcides
What does Thespius offer as a prize to Heracles if he defeats the lion? Why?
his fifty daughters; he only wants grandchildren by Heracles
Does Heracles accept his prize upon defeating the Nemean Lion? What are the two versions of this ending?
yes; 1) Alcides sleeps with all 50 in the same night, 2) Alcides sleeps with all 50 in 50 consecutive nights
Who is Megara?
the oldest daughter of Creon, the king of Thebes
What does Creon give Heracles as a reward for defending Thebes from Orchomenus?
his daughter Megara’s hand in marriage
Who was Autolykos?
the son of Hermes and father of Anticlea; renowned thief who taught Heracles how to wrestle; one of the Argonauts
Whose cattle did Autolykos, or Autolycus, steal?
Eurytus
What else, besides Eurytus’s cattle, did Autolycus steal?
the helmet that Odysseus wore in the Trojan War
Who was Eurystheus?
the son of Sthenelus, grandson of Perseus, who was Hera’s candidate for bringing about the reign of the Twelve Olympians
Who was Zeus’s candidate in the battle of wills to bring about the reign of the Twelve Olympians?
Heracles
Who imposes the Twelve Labors upon Heracles?
Eurystheus
Why does Hera/Juno speed up the labor of Eurystheus’s mother?
so that he is born before Heracles; she also delays Alcmene’s labor; Hera does this so that Eurystheus might get become the heir to the kingdom of Mycenae
Who could not handle Pegasus?
Bellerophon
Why did Bellerophon get into trouble?
he killed his brother
Briefly list Bellerophon’s paternal lineage.
Ailos (mortal), Sisyphus, Glaukos, Bellerophon
To whom did Bellerophon contact in order to be cleansed, or purified, for killing his brother?
Proteus
Who tries to seduce Bellerophon?
Stheneboea, Proteus’s wife (Proteus is the guy who cleansed Bellerophon for killing his brother)
What does Stheneboea do in revenge for Bellerophon refusing her advances?
tells her husband that Bellerophon raped her
What does Proteus do in response to hearing his wife’s accusation?
sends Bellerophon to Iobates, the king of Phrygia and Stheneboea’s father, to be killed
What monster did Bellerophon kill?
the Chimera, a monster with a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail
What does Iobates do to Bellerophon in reponse to the fact that he accomplished 3 great tasks?
gives him one of his daughters and half of his kingdom; Bellerophon ends up having 3 children with this daughter
Bellerophon was sent against the warlike Solymi. What was the outcome?
He defeated them.
Aside from the Chimera and the Solymi, Bellerophon is also sent against the ____. What was the outcome of that match?
the Amazons; Bellerophon defeated them as well
Who goes mad and wants to ride Pegasus into heaven?
Bellerophon
What insect bit Pegasus, causing him to throw Bellerophon off of his back?
the gaga fly
What happens to Pegasus after he throws Bellerophon off of his back?
he stays in heaven, where he is either put into Zeus’s stable or pulls Zeus’s chariot
Athena gives Bellerophon what object, allowing him to capture Pegasus?
a golden bridal
In revenge for accusing him of raping her, how did Bellerophon punish Stheneboea?
he pushed her into the sea when he was riding Pegasus
Why did Heracles kill his wife, Megara, and their children?
because Hera struck him with temporary madness
What was the original name of Heracles?
Alcides
What did the oracle at Delphi tell Heracles?
that he was to go to his ancestral home and be of service to Eurystheus, his mortal enemy, for twelve years
To whom did Heracles go to ask what to do in reponse to slaying his wife and children?
the oracle at Delphi
What does Eurystheus assign Heracles?
the twelve labors, also known as the twelve athloi
What was the 1st labor of Heracles?
the Nemean Lion, who can’t be hurt by weapons
Who takes care of the Nemean Lion?
Hera
How does Heracles kill the Nemean Lion?
he strangles him and kills him with a club
What was the 2nd labor of Heracles?
the 9-headed Hydra of Lerna
What does Hera send Heracles during his quest to kill the hydra? What happens to this animal when Heracles kills it?
a crab; it becomes the constellation Cancer
Who helps Heracles kill the Hydra?
his nephew Iolaus
How does Heracles kill the Hydra?
he chops off the 8 mortal heads and then cauterizes their wounds so that they can’t grow back; he traps the 1 immortal head under a rock and pierces it with an arrow dipped in the Hydra’s own poison
What was the 3rd labor of Heracles?
to capture the Ceryneian Hind belonging to Artemis
The Ceryneian hind belonged to what animal?
a deer with golden horns and brass or bronze hooves; this deer could outrace any arrow
How long did it take Heracles to capture the Ceryneian Hind?
an entire year
Why did Eurystheus make Heracles perform the 3rd labor?
with the hopes that Heracles would piss Artemis off; however, Heracles explains the situation to Artemis and she reluctantly lets Heracles capture her sacred hind as long as he promises to return it
What was the 4th labor of Heracles?
to capture the Erymanthian Boar
After the completion of his 4th labor, where did Heracles go?
the territory of the centaurs, specifically, the cave belonging to his friend/centaur Pholus
What happened to Heracles in the territory of the centaurs?
he was treated to some wine, which attracted the neighboring centaurs, who began to attack Heracles; both Chiron and Pholus die in this attack
What is the 5th labor of Heracles?
cleaning the stables of Augeus, the king of Elis
What is the difficulty with the 5th labor?
the stables are packed with the wastes of over 3,000 oxen during a period of 10 years
How did Heracles clear the stables of Augeus so quickly?
he sent the river Alpheus through the stables, clearing them in less than a day
What was the 6th labor of Heracles?
killing the Stymphalosian Birds
How did Heracles complete the 6th labor?
he flushed the birds out of their nest
What was the 7th labor of Heracles?
capturing the Cretan Bull
Which bull did Heracles capture for his 7th labor?
the Cretan bull that Crete’s king, Minos, failed to sacrifice to Poseidon
What did Heracles do with the bull after he captured it?
brought it back from Crete and released it; it was captured by Theseus in Marathon
What was the 8th labor of Heracles?
capturing the Mares of Diomedes
What mares did Heracles capture for his 8th labor?
a herd of mares belonging to the Thracian king Diomedes; they ate flesh
Who did Heracles get the flesh-eating mares of Diomedes to eat?
Diomedes himself
What did Eurystheus do with the mares once Heracles brought them back to him?
dedicate them to Hera
What was the 9th labor of Heracles?
retrieving the belt of Hippolyta
Who did Heracles kill in his quest to retrieve the belt of Hippolyta?
Hippolyta herself
What was the 12th labor of Heracles?
bringing Cerberus from the Underworld
Who was Cerberus?
the 3-headed dog of Hades
Which labor did Heracles consider to be the hardest?
the 12th labor – bringing back Cerberus from the Underworld
What did Heracles do with Cerberus once he captured him?
he brought him to Eurystheus and then returned him to Hades in the Underworld
What was the 11th labor of Heracles?
retrieving the Golden Apples of the Hesperides
What was the 10th labor of Heracles?
taking the Cattle of Geryon
From where did Heracles bring the cattle of Geryon?
Erythia, a land far away in the west
How did Heracles sail to Erythia? What did he do once he got there?
in a cup given to him by Helios; he then killed Geryon (who had three bodies), Eurytion (his herdsman), and Orthrus (Geryon’s hound)
To where did Heracles drive the cattle of Geryon back?
Greece
Heracles needed the help of which 2 goddesses in order to capture the golden apples of the Hesperides?
Athena and Atlas
Who were the Hesperides?
nymphs who tend a garden far to the west, near the Atlas Mountains in Libya
What are the Hesperides called?
“daughters of night”
What was guarding the apples?
a serpent named Ladon
How did Heracles find the garden where the Hesperides guarded the golden apples?
he held the sea god Nereus captive
How did Heracles get the golden apples?
he either a) killed Ladon, or b) held up the heavens with the aid of Athena while the Titan Atlas fetched the apples
Who returned the golden apples to the Hesperides?
Athena
Who is Meleager?
a minor hero that Heracles meets; said to be one of the Argonauts
The 10th-12th labors of Heracles represent what?
conquests of death
From where do the golden apples come? What do those who possess the golden apples also have?
the tree of life; eternal life
Who is Deianira?
the sister of Meleager; the third wife of Heracles; responsible for the death of Heracles–she accidentally poisoned him (her name means ‘destoyer of her husband’)
What did Heracles want as a prize for cleaning out the stables of Augeas? Does he receive this prize upon completing his task?
1/10th of his cattle; no, the king goes back on his word
What does Heracles do when Augeas doesn’t live up to his promise?
he brings the case before a judge, who calls forth Augeas’s son to testify; the son tells the judge that Augeas promised a prize to Heracles, and as a result Augeas sends Heracles and his own son into exile (they go to Mycenae)
What was the Stadion?
a race track; perhaps the place where the Olympic games where held
What did King Laomedon promise Heracles if he saved his daughter Hesione? Was he good on his promise?
the horses he had received from Zeus; no
Who was Hesione? What happened to her?
a Trojan princess, the daughter of King Laomedon; she was fastened to rocks near the sea by her father who was told by oracles that he had to expose his daughter in order to receive deliverance from Poseidon
Who saved Hesione?
Heracles
Who was Podarces?
the youngest son of King Laomedon; the only son of Laomedon that Heracles did not kill
Who did Podarces grow up to become?
Heracles puts Podarces on the throne but changes his name to Priam (King of Troy); a former suitor of Helen
Who was Telamon?
a close friend of Heracles; one of the Argonauts; the father of Teucer by Hesione
Who was Teucer?
son of King Telamon and Hesione; a great archer who fought in the Trojan war alongside Ajax
Meleager and Deianira are the children of ____.
Oceanus
Who wants to marry Deianira?
Heracles
Who was Achelous?
a river god engaged to Deianira
Why does Heracles wrestle Achelous? What happens?
because he is engaged to the woman he wants to marry; Achelous’s body breaks off (Heracles gives him back his horn)
Why is Heracles so important?
He is the only demi-god who actually becomes a god.
Who auctions Hercules off to a queen in the East named Omphale?
Hermes
Heracles serves Omphale for 1 year as her ____.
sex slave
In return for handing him back his horn, Achelous gives Heracles what object?
the horn of Amalthea (the goat who nursed Zeus on Crete)
Who rapes Deianira? What happens to him?
a centaur named Nessus as he is carrying her across the river; Heracles kills him with a poisoned arrow that has been dipped in the blood of the Hydra; Nessus gives Deianira a love potion (his blood) to stop Heracles’s eyes from roaming as he is dying
Deianira and Heracles have 2 children: 1 son named ____ and 1 daughter named _____.
Hyllus; Macaria
Eurytus has a son named ____ and a daughter named _____.
Iphitus; Iole
With whom does Hercules fall in love? What is her father holding in order to determine who will win her hand?
Iole; an archery contest for all interested suitors
Does Eurytus honor his promise to the winner of the contest?
No; he decides against giving his daughter’s hand in marriage to Hercules.
What does Hercules do in response to Eurytus’s broken promise?
he throws Eurytus’s son Iphitus over the walls of the city one day when he is hunting
After killing Iphitus, what does Heracles do? What happens?
goes to the town Pylos in order to be purified by King Neleus; King Neleus refuses to purify him
How does Heracles act in reponse to King Neleus’s refusal to purify him?
he kills him and all of his sons except one son named Nestor
What does Heracles do at Delphi?
grabs the sacred tripod and says he is trying to establish his own oracle
What happens when Heracles grabs the sacred tripod?
Apollo comes down to earth and they argue; Zeus has to break it up by throwing a thunderbolt, he then chastises Heracles
What is the Argonauts’ 2nd stop? What happened here?
Samothrace; they were initiated into the mysteries
Where is the Argonauts’ 1st stop? What were the people like here?
the island Lemnos; they refused to worship Aphrodite–the women had a funny smell and the men refused to have sex with them
With whom did the men on the island of Lemnos have sex? What do all the wives of the Lemnoan men do in return?
the women from Thrice; kill them all, except 1 man: Thoas, the king
Who becomes queen of Lemnos?
Thoas’s daughter, Hypsipyle
When Jason and the Argonauts’s boat lands at Lemnos, what happens?
the women of Lemnos have sex with them (they’ve been without men for awhile)
How long do Jason and his men stay at Lemnos?
a year
The women of Lemnos find out what dirty secret of Hypsipyle’s? What happens?
she put her father in a chest on the water in order to save him; they exile her, she goes to Nema
Who has kids with Hypsipyle?
Jason

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