CLAS 201 Test 2

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Pentakosiomedimnoi
Anyone whose estate produced the equivalent of five hundred bushels or measures of grain
Hippeis
Knights/horsemen. Citizens whose estates produced between 400 and 500 bushels of grain
Zeugitae
Teamsters, as in driving a team of oxen. Citizens whose estates produced between 300 and 400 bushels of grain
Thetes
Citizens whose estates produced less than 300 bushels of grain
Boule (400)
council of 400. Consisted of former archons (Pentakosiomedimnoi, Hippeis, and Zeugitae). Elected by population from first 3 classes. Discuss things like if should expand fleet, etc.
Heliaea
A court consisting of ordinary citizens. Enables any citizen to bring case against any other citizen, does not matter what class. Could bring case against ex-officials.
Axones
A wooden device, much like a lazy Susan. Law code written on here. Exposed to public. Much more humane/effective laws.
Plain, Hill, and Coast
Three regions of Athens’ population. Hill people were poor and interested in democratic reform. Plain people were wealthy and interested in an oligarchic government. Coast were in the middle and liked to play the two groups of against each other.
Stasis
Civil war.
Peisistratus
Became tyrant (seized power unconstitutionally) of Athens (546-527 B.C.E.). Rules city/state for 20 years. Astute political operator. In control of system but keeps democratic process alive. Takes advantage of confusion and forces people to keep this democratic system. Pushed Athenians to expand their train (olive oil and wine).
Laurion Mines
A rich vein of silver found during Peisistratus’s reign. Caused him to mint owl-headed silver coins (in honour of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens). These coins became popular with many other city-states.
Panathenaic Festival
Celebrated every year and, in the fourth year, was particularly lavish, included athletic and poetic/musical competitions. Necessitated a standard text of Homer. Climax of festival was a pompe or procession that would make its way from the foot of the acropolis up the acropolis itself and to the Parthenon, where a statue of Athena lay. This image of the goddess would be presented with a new peplos or gown.
Dionysia
Dramatic festival. Dedicated to god Dionysus who is god of theater. Very famous plays designed for one performance. 20-300000 people would watch. People from outside of Athens would travel to see the play.
Hippias
One of Peisistratus’s sons who takes over his rule. Driven out of power after death of his brother. Took refuge in Persia. Period of tyranny in Athens ends.
Hipparchus
Son of Peisistratus who inherits his rule of Athens. Falls in love with Harmodius, a young Athenian male. Harmodius spurned Hipparchus who sought revenge by preventing Harmodius’ sister from playing a prominent role in the Panathenaic festival. Harmodius and Aristogeiton assassinated Hipparchus (514, with help from other co-conspirators).
Harmodius
A young Athenian male who was dating Aristogeiton and pursued by Hipparchus. Assassinates Hipparchus then arrested and put to death. Was the passive member of the relationship (Eromenos).
Aristogeiton
Lover of Harmodius. He was the erastes – the older, guiding male. Assassinated Hipparchus with help from Harmodius. They were arrested and put to death.
eromans
In a homosexual relationship in ancient Athens, he is the young passive partner in the relationship. Receives guidance and introduction to society from the erastes.
erastes
In a homosexual relationship in ancient Athens, he is the older, guiding male to the eromenos. The active member of the sexual relationship.
Plato’s Symposium
A dialogue in which the characters discuss the notion of love, eros. There was a number of famous people sitting toegher including Alcibiades, Aristophanes, Socrates. Idealizes the relationship of older man and young male. Romance was not seen in the marriage between a husband and wife, the purpose was for producing heirs. Sexual relations with prostitutes or in homosexual relationships, not Athenian women.
eros
Intimate or romantic love.
Cleisthenes (508)
Athenian reformer. Modified Solom’s reform by further dividing the population into 10 tribes.
Trittys (30)
A group that citizens belonged to, based on their place of residency. There were 30 trittys. Each tribe consisted of three trittys. The three trittyes that formed each tribe came from the hill, coast and plain.
tribes (10)
Cleisthenes divided the population into 10 tribes. Each tribe consisted of three trittyes each consisting of citizens from one of the three regions of Athens. Forced the members to cooperate with each other, and this mean the hill, coast, an plain people in each tribe had to bury their differences and “play nicely” together.
Boule (500)
Under Cleisthenes, expanded to accommodate 50 members from each tribe (500 people in all). These people were chosen by lot. They would prepare business for the ekklesia and handle financial matters and ones involving foreign affairs. Members were elected for a space of a year, but bc 500 people couldn’t rule so effectively, it was decided to allow 50 members of each tribe to rule for one tenth of the year.
prytanis
The office of one of the 50 members of each tribe Boule that served for one tenth of the year.
strategoi (generals – 10)
10 generals elected every year, one from each tribe. Can continually be elected to office so therefore the position of choice for politicians.
Ostracism
An innovation of Cleisthenes. If 6000 votes could be gathered against an up and coming politician, he could be ostracized (voted into excile).
Laconia
An area of Greece that lies in the southern half of the Peloponnese. Spartans can be referred to as Laconians.
Messenia
A region of the Peloponnese that is northwest of Laconia. Fertile soil – more fertile than the soil in Sparta. Taken over by Spartans and turned into helots.
Perioikoi
Neighbours of Sparta also in Laconia. Brought under the control of the Spartans. Stable relations between them and Spartans. The perioikoi could have contact with outsiders (unlike the Spartans who were very insular), could practice trade and live by their own laws. They therefore had some independence. Their men had to serve in the Spartan army, but were not subject to Spartan laws and training, could not marry Spartans or have a say in Spartan government.
1st Messenian War (c.730)
Once Sparta conquers Messenia, they decide to occupy the territory and convert the population to Helots (slaves). Spartans boern would get an estate in Messinai.
Helots
Messenian slaves to Sparta. They would work the kleori for the Spartan male and would feed, clothe, and arm him. Many helots worked in Sparta as well, as menials; they would accompany the army as servants and sometimes even fight. They had no freedom of movement, no rights, their lives could be taken from them (with no legal consequences), and they were ina perpetual state of war with Sparta: each year Sparta would declare war on Messenia (as a way of legitimizing their harsh treatment of the population).
kleroi
Estates that the Messenian territory was divided into. At birth a Spartan male would receive such an estate, and, with it, control over the Messenian helots who worked this land. The Spartan male would live off the proceeds from his kleros.
Krypteia
The hidden ones. Males between the ages of 14-18 in the Spartan military would send groups of Spartans into Messenia to target potential agitators or to kill people to throw the Messenians off balance. Was designed to install fear in the Messenians and to prevent them from even thinking of rebelling against Sparta.
2nd Messenian War (c. 670)
A large revolt against Sparta on the part of the helots. Brought Sparta to the brink. Once they won, it was decided that the city would have to be reorganized to prevent such threatening circumstances from rising again.
Lycurgus
Ruler of Sparta during/after the 2nd Messenian War. Purpose was to turn Sparta into a militarized society where each and every citizen contributed to the city’s defense.
Great Rhetra
A radical reorganization of the city’s routines by Lycurgus. Sparta becomes a totalitarian state (ie. the state controls everything). The essential purpose of the male was to serve as a soldier (and father the next generation) while the female was the breeder of more soldiers (and more breeders).
Apothesis (exposure)
A common phenomenon in the ancient Greek world. Exposure of an infant if 1) there was often insufficient food to feed a family, 2) contraception was primitive and unsuccessful, 3) abortion techniques were primitive and unsuccessful as well.

A form of retroactive abortion. For a period of five days after the birth of a child, a family could expose the child without incurring any charge of homicide. After this interval had passed, the child would undergo a ritual which would welcome the child into the family and the human collective. Once this ceremony was over, any harm done to the child would be tantamount to homicide.

Amphidromia
A ritual in Athens which would welcome the child into the family and the human collective. Once this ceremony was over, any harm done to the child would be tantamount to homicide.
Homoioi (peers)
Battle companions of Spartan males. Males of age 30-55 were allowed to live at home but they continued to practice syssition – messing with their homoioi.
Syssition
Eating together with homoioi.
Kings (2)
Sparta had two royal families. The two kings were responsile for leading the army, religious rituals, a role in the gerousia, and judicial activities (trying cases dealing with inheritance and adoption).
Ephors (5)
5 males over the age of 30 ensured that Spartan law was being followed. The ephors would monitor the king, inspected newborns to see if they were healthy, monitored barracks life, etc.
Gerousia (30)
Like the Athenian Boule in Sparta. It consisted of 30 Spartans (2 kings and 28 males over the age of 55 who were elected to this body). A life-long appointment. Deliberated or discussed thorny political issues (war, crimes, laws, foreign relations etc). The most powerful institution in the state. Its members were old because the state required tried and tested citizens to keep the Spartan way of life moving forward.
Apella
Like the Athenian Ecclesia (popular assembly) in Sparta. It consisted of males above the age of 30. They would vote in elections and on proposals brought forward by the Gerousia.
Peloponnesian League
An alliance between the various Peloponnesian city-states. Each state would send representatives who would vote on proposals within an assembly. At times, the League could assemble a vast army and this would usually serve under a Spartan leadership. The Spartans did not control this League, however, in the way they controlled the Messenians or perioikoi. Still, its existence did mean they could field large armies when the conditions were right.
Athenian women versus Spartan women
In Athens, women were managed by their “lord’, a kyrios. They were kept under watch and not alone in public during years of fertility. Male non-relatives could not interact with them. Their purpose was to produce heirs for their husband. The only women that could be educated and had freedom were high priced prostitutes.

In Sparta, women had a better life since property was not an issue of inheritance. Children were given an estate immediately after birth. Men were often absent and were not afraid of women having affairs. Women had more freedom.

kyrios
The “lord” that managed Athenian women. First was her father or brother, then her husband.
gunaikon
The women’s quarters of the house.
andron
Part of a Greek house reserved for men.
Barbaroi
“barbarians”. All foreigners.
Herodotus (c. 485)
A source for the Persian Wars. Born in a city in Asia Minor. Had “multi-cultural” perspective. Appreciated brilliance whether it was Greek in origin or barbaric (i.e. non-Greek). Had rationalizing tendencis. Herodotus worked consciously to draw a firm line between fact and fiction; the mythological past and the true history.

Described grounds for tensions between Greeks and Asians (anyone from places east of Greek territory). Persian Wars (the focus of Herodotus’ history books) were the product of a rivalry that extended into the distant past and were the latest manifestation of Greek-Asian rivalries..

Halicarnassus
A city in Asia Minor. Birth place of Herodotus.
Croesus
Croesus
The last king of the Lydians. Had conquered a large number of populations in Asia Minor (including the Ionian communities). He was fantastically wealthy and rather conceited. He was interested in the Greek customs and abilities and ruled them moderately.
Lydia
An intermediate population. Lydian territory lay between Ionia (home of the Greeks) and Media (later Persia).
Ionia
Home of the Greeks in central coastal Anatolia. In present day Turkey. Bounded by Lydia to the east.
Medes
Later Persia. Modern day Iran. Have taken over Babylon.
Persians
Subject of Babylonians (subject of Medes). They later defeat Medes adn take over the whole region.
Cyrus (c. 560)
Persian king took over the Medes who took over the Babylonians. He started to move west toward Lydia. Cyrus is a product of a Persion and a Mede. He takes over all of Lydia after defeating Croesus and therefore controls the Ionian city-states. He does not disrupt things with the Greeks.
Delphic Oracle
An oracle located in Delphi, on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus. It was dedicated to the god Apollo and was a site of Panhellenic importance – all Greeks consulted the oracle. Was viewed as a true authority and had a great deal of influence on the political landscape of ancient Greece. It represented the voice of the god on the one hand, but was careful to adjust itself to certain political realities on the other.
Apollo
The god of prophecy (in addition to archery, light, music and healing).
Pytho
An enormous snake-like creature. Child of Gaia (Earth). Was given the oracle at Delphi from her mother. Apollo attacked and killed this creature and claimed the precinct for himself.
Pythia
Apollo’s priestess at the Delphic Oracle. Named after Pytho. On a day when the oracle was open for business, she would be bathed in water from the Castalian Spring, descend into the Adytum, and take a seat on or near a tripod. She would breathe in some fumes, and Apollo would possess her. On hearing a question from a petitioner, he would speak through the Pythia and other priests would write these rantings down, in elegant Greek verse. The answer was often ambiguous.
Castalian spring
A spring a fair distance from Delphi. The Pythia would be bathed in water from this spring on a day when the oracle was open for business.
adytum
A rocky recess beneath Apollo’s temple at Delphi where the Pythia would descend into on the day the oracle was open for business.
tripod
The symbol of the Pythia’s office. She would take a seat on or near a tripod to allow Apollo to possess her.
laurel
A tree sacred to Apollo. When the Pythia breathed in the fumes from burning laurel leaves, Apollo would possess her.
Darius (521-486)
Grandson of Cyrus. Ruler of Persia. In the early part of his rule, he succeeded in defeating the Thracians (a population that lived due north of Greece) but did not invade Greece itself.
Thrace (512)
An area due north of Greece, succeeded by Darius I, ruler of Persia.
Aristogoras (499)
The Greek tyrant of Miletus (an Ionian city-state), under the rule of Darius I. Proposed to Darius I that he lend him the use of part of the Persian navy to conquer the island of Naxos. He himself would become the tyrant of Naxos (in addition to being tyrant of Miletus). The king would have extended the range of his rule into the Mediterranean.
Miletus
An Ionian city-state under the tyranny of Aristagoras.
Naxos
A powerful city-state of Greece. An island in the Mediterranean Sea. Aristagoras attempts to conquer it for Persia but fails when the Naxians are warned in advance of his plans.
Megabates
A Persian sent by Darius to keep an eye on Aristagoras’ campaign to conquer the island of Naxos. Megabates was jealous and, in an effort to sabotage Aristogoras’ plans, warned the Naxians in advance of his plans and so ruined his chances of succeeding.
Rebellion (499-494)
After Aristagonas’ defeat by the Naxians, he realizes he will be put to death by Darius. So, he decides to become a freedom fighter and incite the Ionian city-states to rebel under his authority.

The Spartans did not assist, but the Athenians did. The Persians ended up prevailing. The Athenians returned home and the Ionians remained under the control of the Persians.

Sardis burned
Sardis was a rich city and the capital of Lydia’s empire. Darius felt the Athenians had a large part to play in the burning of Sardis during the Ionian Rebellion.
Miletus destroyed
Miletus was an Ionian city-state on the western coast of Anatolia. The tyrant of Miletus (Aristagonas) became the leader of the Ionian Rebellion, and King Darius punished him and all of Greece by setting Miletus to the torch.
1st Persian War (490)
Darius sends large naval force to area of Athens (~400 ships), to seek revenge for their part in the Ionian Rebellion.
Eretria
Darius’s naval force lands in this island nation-state near Athens at the beginning of the 1st Persian War. The Eretrians helped the Athenians in the Ionian Rebellion, so Darius destroyed Eretria upon arrival.
Artaphernes
A leader of the Persian expedition in the First Persian War.
Datis
A leader of the Persian expedition in the First Persian War.
Marathon
The Persian navy landed at the town of Marathon in Attica after destroying Eretria. The Athenians, together with a contingent of Plataeans, marched against the Persians. They were victorious, with 192 Athenian casualties, and 6400 Persian casualties.

The battle at Marathon marked the start of Athenian confidence.

Miltiades
A former tyrant of city states in the region of Thrace and a participant in the Ionian revolt. He had sought refuge in Athens after the revolt’s collapse. He had been voted in as one of the ten strategoi. He proposed that the Athenians should attack the Persians.
Callimachus
The polemarch at the time of the First Persian War. Backed Militiades’ suggestion to attack the Persians as they were trapped at Marathon.
Pheidippides
A professional runner who participated in the battle at Marathon. He ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory then died while delivering his method. This 26.2 mi run has now been turned into the modern “marathon”.
Aeschylus
A great Athenian playwright/poet. He insisted that his tombstone be inscribed words to the effect that he fought at Marathon, not that he was Athens’ primary dramatist.
Marathonomachoi
The men who fought in the battle at Marathon. They had the same reputation that we associate with the Greatest Generation (i.e. the men who fought WWII).
Xerxes
Son of Darius. He amassed an enormous force to rematch the Athenians. Modern historians feel he mustered about 300,000 troops.
Themistocles
A politician in Athens who had come to the fore. He had served as archon in 494 and (possibly) served as a strategos at the Battle of Marathon. In the wake of the first Persian War he worked hard to transform Athens as a land power into a naval one. He did this by moving the city’s harbour from Phalerum (where the fleet was vulnerable) to the Piraeus which was easily fortified (and which serves to this day as Athens’ port).

Insisted silver found in Laurion mine should be used to build two hundred triremes.

He was from the lower classes. His political support came from this segment of society as well. His decision to turn Athens into a naval power wasn’t based exclusively on military calculations. He realized (too) that a fleet would require lots of rowers. Rowing equipment was very cheap (unlike the cost of a suit of armour) and therefore the lower masses could be admitted into the Athenian military with the development of the fleet. These initiatives were very popular with the lower classes and therefore guaranteed Themistocles had lots of popular support.

Laurion mine
In 483 a rich vein of silver was discovered in the Laurion mines. A debate ensued on how the money should be spent.
Triremes
Three-benched ships that require approx. 180 rowers, sails being cumbersome at this stage and not continuously deployed.

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