CC302 M3

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Who were the Allobroges? What role did they play in the conspiracy?
A tribe of gauls. They were approached by the conspirators and reported them to Cicero. They became double agents and collect writtne proof the implicated conspirators.
What was Catiline’s social background? why was he particularly irritated to lose the consulship to cicero?
He was from a patrician but not distinguished. He was desperate to be consul to pay off his debts.
What were the tabulae novae? Who was in favor of this?
universal cancellation of debt. Patricians were in favor of this.
Why does the senate pass an SCU? Was catiline its target?
Cicero’s report of to the senate of rumors of conspiracy. Catiline’s letter was intercepted which was recruiting discontents
What did Cicero do when Catiline attended the senate? How did Catiline respond?
Cicero denounced him in a speech. Catiline defended himself and called Cicero and immigrant.
Why did Catiline leave Rome, in his own words?
He wanted avoid causing strife
What reason did Manlius give to defend the revolution? How did his agenda differ from Catiline’s?
Laws weren’t protecting debtors. Catiline confessed he was revolting because he was shut out of consulship
Who was Lentulus? What role did he play in the conspiracy? What happened to him?
Roman praetor who tried to get allobroges help. He got caught and was executed (this was Cato’s view)
Why did the Allobroges betray the conspiracy?
They decided it was in their best interest to side with the optimates/Roman Gov. since their in power, because if they lose they’re screwed
To what extent was the conflict between Cicero and Catiline a conflict between Optimates and Populists?
Great extent, Cicero for the most part invent the conspiracy
How did Roman citizens initially react to news of Caesar’s death? What changed their minds?
Initial celebration of liberation from tyranny. The reading of Caesar’s will changed their minds
What decisions did the seante reach when it met two days after Caesar’s assassination?
Antony summoned senate, reached compromisse. No action agasinst assassins, all of caesar’s deeds ratified
What role did Marc Antony play in the days immediately after Caesar’s death?
He was one of the first in line to fill the power vacuum. He also wanted to protect Caesar’s legacy
What happened to Cloepatra and the son fathered by Caesar?
They returned to Egypt
Who was Octavian? How was someone so young able to challenge Antony for power?
He was Caesar’s grand nephew, he had lots of money to get troops
What was the significance of Caesar making himself dictator in perpetuum?
Showed he no longer respected the republic. Suggested that they need to move on from it.
How did Caesar’s assassination echo aspects of Romulus’ death?
Both killed by a mob of angry senators who thought they had grown too powerful
What republican value did the assassins of Caesar claim to be upholding?
Defense of liberty and the republic
Where was Caesar killed? significance?
The theater of pompey. There’s irony in this
Against what enemy was Caesar planning a campaign after his return to Rome in 45 BC?
The Parthians
What was nomination? How did Caesar use it? Potenial problems?
Power to just name someone for a seat of power. He puts his own appointees in various offices. He ignored magistrates and tribunes.
Why did Caesar limit the grain dole?
To take pressures off the roman treasury
Why did Caesar reform the calendar? Impact of this reform?
About three month difference between the solar year and Roman calendar. The calendar endured until Gregorian calendar.
What changes did Caesar make to the senate? from what Roman provinces did senators now come?
Increased number of senators. Spain and Gaul
What happened when Caesar tried to sail to Greece in pursuit of Pompey?
Half of his troops couldn’t make it through the blockade
What was Pompey’s general tactic in dealing with Caesar? Why did he abandon this tactic?
He decided to wait for Caesar’s troops to starve… The optimates told him to attack
How did Caesar get involved with Cleopatra?
She seduces Caesar to get him to declare her queen of egypt
Why (and where) did Cato the Younger kill himself? what is his postmortem rep?
Killed himself at Utica. Remembered as hero of republic
Why did Cicero leave rome shortly after Caesar’s assassination in 44 BC?
It was in response to Antony’s grab for power
What were the Philippics? What inspired their composition?
Speeches against Antony. Cicero thought that Antony would restore senatorial authority. He didn’t.
Why did Antony set seige to Mutina? How did Octavian get official imperium to intervene?
Antony wanted command of Cisalpine Gaul, the governor refused to leave. Cicero allied with Octavian and gave him imperium.
What did Antony do immediately after Mutina?
Antony survived and fled and joined forces with Lepidus who controlled the Roman army.
Describe the circumstances that led to Octavian becoming consul.
Octavian asked to be elected, Senate refused and he marched on Rome and he became consul and named Caesar’s assassins and Pomey’s son enemies of the state, but also tries to reconcile with Antony and Lepidus
In what way was the 2nd triumvirate different from the 1st? What was the first priority for the 2nd triumvirate?
It was a 5 year term and had actual legal grounding. It had authority to make laws w/o senate or roman people. No appeals. right to nominate magistrates (didn’t always do this). Priority was punishment of caesar’s assassins
What happened to Caesar’s assassins? where?
At battle of phillipi. Macedonia. Brutus and cassius commit suicide
What was the symbolic significance of the deaths of Brutus and Cassius
They were symbolic of the end of roman republic
What did Octavian do after the Battle of Philippi?
He reutrned to italy to settle the veterans
Why did the 2nd triumvirate use proscriptions? Why did Antony add cicero to the list? Octavian’s response?
They needed to pay the troops. Cicero opposed antony before. Octavian did not object.
What did Octavian do that required Antony to return to Italy from the east in 40 bc?
Octavian took over Antony’s province of Gaul
How did Octavian reaffirm his alliance with antony? What roman territories did Octavian control after Brundisium? Antony?
He mad a pact of brundisium, (reconciliation) sealed by marriage to Octavian’s sister. Octavian will control the west and Gaul. Antony has the east
Who was Sextus Pompey? Why did Octavian finally decide to confront him with military force?
Surviving son of pompey. the deal between them fell apart quickly.In order to fight him octavian renews triumvirate
What did Lepidus do that led to his removal from the 2nd Triumvirate and exile?
He Tried to seize power from octavian after defeat of sextus.
Why did Antony remain in the east after Philippi? Name two things he was doing there.
Raising money to pay troops from philippi (where Brutus and cassius were taken down), settling veterans, dealing with disloyal rulers
What instigated Antony’s confrontation with the Parthians after Philippi? How did this war end?
Parthian support for Caesar’s assassins, invasion of roman holdings in the east
How many children did Antony have with Cloepatra? How can we explain the fact that he also had a family with Octavia, his legal wife?
Twins and another son. There was no expectation that he would ever marry Cleopatra.
Why did the alliance between Antony and Octavian finally end? What did Octavian do to get the upper hand?
The triumvirate was breaking down, Octavian had just had a big victory and Antony a loss. Octavian launched a propaganda war, married Livia
What was the significance of Antony’s donation of Roman land to his children by Cleopatra?
The Donations caused a fatal breach in Antony’s relations with Rome and were amongst the causes of the Final War of the Roman Republic.
Why did Antony’s declaration of Caesarion as Caesar’s son and heir threaten Octavian?
Octavian drew his power from being related to caesar by being his adopted son and grandnephew… this mean that Caesarion was in line before Octavian
Why did Octavian declare war against Cleopatra and Egypt rather than Antony?
Avoid appearance of a civil war
Where did Antony and Octavian finally face off in war? Outcome?
Battle of Actium in Greece. Antony and Cleopatra’s troops surrender, they escape to Alexandria
Why did Cleopatra kill herself? How did she do it?
Let snakes bite her. Didn’t want to be captured
How does Roman poet Horace characterize Cleopatra? Her death?
She a hoe, but strong woman.
What happened to the son of Caesar and Cleopatra (Ptloemy Caesar)? Why?
Ptolemy Caesar was proclaimed Pharoah and executed when Octvian came to Egypt
What happened to the children of Antony and Cleopatra?
Taken back to Rome and raised by Octavia
What circumstances led to a large influx of slaves into Rome?
Rome’s victories in war in 2nd and 3rd century bc
How did slavery facilitate the expansion of Roman power and economic prosperity after the punic wars?
Slavery shifted farms from family run to estates. Then more people go to cities.
What sort of roles might an educated slave perform?
Accountants, scribes, teachers, doctors, nurses
Why were field slaves especially valuable?
They were important for the shift to the estate.
What was a public slave? (servus publicus)? What role did they perform?
Slaves owned by roman people. They were gladiators or worked in buildings, temples, roads
What was dominica potestas (the power of the master)? Why might a master be wise to refrain from harming a slave?
Absolute power. Slave was valuable, couldn’t work if dead or maimed.
What did freedmen wear as a symbol of their social status?
wearing the freedmen’s cap
Describe the limiations on the rights of freedmen.
Could not be a candidate in elections, or rise to high military rank. Forced to work for master for certain number of days. cannot marry into senatorial class.
What was Spartacus a symbol of for non-elite romans?
Symbol of the oppressed fighting against an abusive ruling elite
Why did Augustus want to reinstitute the republican form of gov’t after Actium? How did this distinguish him from his adoptive father Julius Caesar?
Create apperance that republic is back in place. He handed back authority but remained conssul and governed several provinces, wanted senate support, unlike Caesar
Explain the difference between auctoritas and imperium
authority (came from power given to you, not from law) vs power (given to person when they take command of legions)
What is maius imperium? Why was it important?
greater power. it meant he trumped everyone else, even consuls
What motivated Augustus to call the 2nd constitutional settlement?
Need to create a formal legal authority for Augustus’ rule, by a senatorial plot and serious illness
Why did Augustus refusse to hold a consulship even though he wore the insignia of the consuls?
It was preferable to leave consulships open to senate and himself to occupy different positions. it was victory for everybody
What was the pontifex maximus? Why might it appeal to augustus to hold this office?
the chief priest. he would have legal authority and religious authority
How did Augustus change the constituency of the senate (who members were)? Did he allow open elections?
Removed unworthy members, instituted a minimum wealth req, returned senate to 600. enforced sulla’s regs. allowed free elections but did recommend candidates for appt at times
What was the primary motivation for being a senator under Augustus?
Eligibilty for special appointments by augustus, needed support to advance politically
How did Augustus treat the equestrian class? Why?
He gave them lots of power, employed business expertiese. they were less threatening because they didn’t have senatorial ambitions
What was the primary reason for Augusts’s success in consolidating his victory over Antony and remaining in power for several decades?
he erased memory of his rise to power and brought in peace and stability
Name two ways that Augustus professionalized the Roman military. Why was marriage not permitted?
It became voluntary, a career option. No marriage because of difficulty of moving families
Why did Augustus not permit senators to command legions, as was traditional in the republic?
the “new men” didn’t threaten him by getting a legion to revolt
How did Augustus manage the Parthians? What was the significance of getting the standards back?
Diplomacy instead of force. He was able to negotiate the return of standards in 20 BC. It’s a great victory for the Romans.
Name two ways that Augustus was “present” in the provinces even when back in Rome.
Coinage, statues, busts, written decrees and public inscriptions
How did Augustus feel about the practice of the imperial cult? What version did he permit?
Gnerally discouraged it. supported deification after death
What divinity ruled over the golden age? What role did Justice play?
Era of peace without labor. Justice lived on earth amongst the people
Name three values traditionally associated with Augustus’s golden age
Pax, Conordia, pietas, libertas, rligio,justice
Besides peace, what other values/ideologies does the Ara Pacis celebrate?
Family and religion
What episode in Augustus’ life is highlighted on the breastplate of the Prima Porta Augustus?
What figure is at the foot of the Prima Porta Augustus? Significance of this figure?
cupid. He traces his lineage back to Aeneas and cupid and venus
Why did Augustus devote so many resources to building projects in Rome?
He is carrying out the plans of Caesar and beautifying rome, displaying his pietas
When did he begin the temple to Deified Julius? Why did he undertake construction?
42 BC, the construction of temple would mean that Julius Caesar became a god, and therefore he would benefit from being son of a god.
What battle did the Temple to Mars Ultor commermorate? Where in Rome can the remains of this temple be found?
He promised to build it after defeating the assassins of Caesar. Forum of Augustus
What message was Augustus trying to convey when he built the Mausoleum?
It was planning for a family dynasty, that he wasn’t going to be the last ruler for a family dynasty.
Who traditionally participated in urban patronage? How did this practice differ under Augustus?
The senatorial elite. He strictly protects the right for himself and his family
Who was Marcellus? Significance of a stone theater constructed by a member of Augustus’s family?
Augustus’s son in law. It was build to rival Pompey’s theatre.
Who did Augustine entrust with the task of renovating Rome’s aqueduct system?
How did Roman engineers ensure that water flowed downhill over uneven landscapes when bringing it to the city from distant sources?
They used a very small grade and only descended a little bit over very long distances.
Where did Augustus die? Where was he buried? What month is named after him?
Nola. Buried near mausoleum. August.
Explain the important change that Augustus made to the system of taxation in the provinces
Direct taxation in provinces, collection done by civil servants, not private syndicates.
Who gave the eulogy for Augustus?
Who was Postumus Agrippa? Why was he killed shortly after Augustus’s death?
Grandson of Augustus. Done to prevent him from challenging Tiberius for princeps.
What evidence is there that Augustus did not originally intend to have his successor be a family member?
He had his loyal lieutenant agrippa married to Julia.
What family member(s) did Augustus first hope would be his successor? Why did this not happen?
Marcellus and then his grandsons. They all died prematurely.
Why was Tiberius originally not a top choice for successor of Augustus? How did Augustus mark Tiberius as his intended successor?
Tiberius had retired from Rome earlier. He’s never really a favored son. He married Tiberius to Julia
Why was Tiberius less popular than Augustus with the roman people?
He spent a lot of time away from Rome, did not sponsor public games or building projects, wasn’t an urban patron
What did Tiberius do hat establishd the praetorian guard as a permanent influence in Roman politics?
They were established in Rome just outside of city walls and were a 24 hr palace guard.
Describe two ways that Tiberius differed from Augustus in his rule of Rome.
He was often outside of Rome. He didn’t have have the same ambition and vision of Augustus.
Why is Tiberius remembered so badly by historians? Evidence that he wasn’t so bad?
It was because of treason trials blackening his rep. He consolidates Rome’s holdings and left treasury in great shape
How did Caligula establish himself as Tiberius’s successor? What was the response of the Roman people?
He has Gemellus, the other heir put to death. They embraced Caligula early on.
How did Caligula initially make peace with the senate? What led that relationship to disintegrate? How did the senate exact revenge?
He re instituted senatorial authority. He became more and more autocratic and outrageous. (made his horse a consul, deified his sister). He gets assassinated by the Praetorian guard.
What result did the senatorial assassins of Caligula hope for? How did Claudius undermine their plans?
Some in senate hoped to restore republic. He was named by the Praetorian Guard to princeps
What evidence do we have that Claudius was trying to mend bridges with the senate during his reign?
He consults them frequently, revives office of censors, makes an effort to strengthen senate and weaken Prateorian Guard.
Who made up the majority of Claudius’s close supervisors in the imperial palace? Why?
Freedmen. He was pandering to the people.
Name one public works project that Claudius undertook for the benefit of the city of Rome
Invaded britain, annexed territories. regularized grain in winter. construction of new aqueduct and port
Why might Roman Gauls have been eager to overthrow Nero?
high taxes caused by Nero’s costly rebuilding efforts.
What charges did Vindex make against Nero regarding Agrippina?
He said he was depraved, commited incest and murder of Agrippina (his mother).
What role did Verginius Rufus play in the death of Vindex? Why did Rufus refuse to accept his troops’ acclamation of him as emperor?
He was sent by nero to quell rebellion. Vindex in the end commits suicide. Rufus refuses to be emperor.
Name one option that Nero considered in response to Vindex’s revolt? What did he decide to eventually do? How did he expect things to turn out?
Kill all the roman exiles and gauls, kill all senators burn rome and flee, or kill military commanders. He decides to march on Gaul.
What did the senate do after Vindex’s revolt? How did Nero respond?
They declare Nero an enemy of the state. Nero runs and ends up commiting suicide.
How did the people in the city of Rome react initially to Nero’s death, according to ancient historians? What evidence contradicts this claim?
THey were said to have celebrated his demise. He was given a lavish state funeral and deified.
What was a “false Nero?” Where did these appear?
People who would pretend they were Nero. In the east.
How did Galba become emperor? Contrast his policies and self-presentation to that of Nero.
He was named emperor by the senate. He was traditional, austere.
How did Otho becom emperor? How did he positoin himself vis-a-vis Nero?
He overthrew Galba with the aid of the praetorian guard. He became the “new nero”
Describe the role played by Egypt in Vespasian’s appointment as emperor.
The egyptians had proclaimed him emperor and thus he controlled Rome’s grain supply
Why might Romans have been eager to accept Vespasian as their new emperor?
There was a lack of unity ad stability in Rome at the time he came into power.
What did the ‘lex de imperio Vespasiani’ do? What was the significance of this law?
specified powers and rights of the emperor. Now has powers of emperors into laws.
What title did Vespasian adopt? How did this distinguish him from the Julio-Claudian emperors?
Imperator. Before they used princeps.
Describe one way that Vespasian distanced himself from the memory of Nero. Why might he have done this?
Opened Nero’s palace to the public. He wants to justify the rise of a new family dynasty.
Who destroyed the Jewish temple in jerusalem in 70 AD? Significance of this even?
Titus. The temple was never rebuild and it was a remembrance. Means that they can no longer make sacrifices.
Were the Jews required to participate in the Imperial cult? Rationale for this?
They didn’t have to sacrifice to the emperor. They respected their ancient relgion.
What happened at Masada in 73 AD according to Josephus? Historical evidence of this?
Jews holed up in Masada killed themselves. But no historical evidence in Masada.
Where did Vespasian station army recruits? Why?
Only recruits roman citizens in provinces, then stationed outside of homeland.
Name on natural disaster that confronted Titus during his reign.
Vesuvius, fire at rome.
In what ways did Domitian distinguish himself before becoming emperor?
He wasn’t distinguished at all. No experience in military or office.
Describe 2 ways Domitian postioned himself as the heir of Augustus, as ushering in a new golden age for Rome.
He named himself censor, sought to control morals. Revalued roman coinage, building, campaigned.
What was the significance of the site of the Flavian amphitheater? What function did the amphitheater have?
It was something for the people and entertained them.
Why did Domitian erect a temple to his father and brother?
Show respect for his family and tradition and pietas.
What victory did the Triumphal arch of titus commemorate?
What was domitian’s relationship with the roman senate?
He rendered the senate obsolete by seizing power from the court, became paranoid and killed senators.
How did Domitian die? What was damnatio memoriae?
stabbed in the groin. It condemned Domitian’s memory and he was deleted from memory.
What part of the Roman people remained loyal to the memory of Domitian after his death? Why?
The normal people because Domitian was a populist.
What was the alimenta?
Child support system.
Why did Nerva adopt Trajan? Significance of this for imperial succession?
TO consolidate his rule after revolt by Praetorian guard. He was the first emperor to be not from Rome.
What term did Trajan use on his coinage to define himself?
Optimus Princep.
How did Trajan distinguish himself from Domitian and Vespasian?
Rejected Domitian’s dominus et deus. Returned from imperator to princeps.
What was the beneficial ideology? Was trajan the first to claim to practice this?
Emperor as loving parent who provides for his “children”. No, Augustus did it too
What use did the markets of Trajan have in Ancient Rome?
It was like a mall of ancient Rome. It acted as an economic stimulus.
What victory does Trajan’s Column commemorate?
Victory in the Dacian wars.
What was a curator? Why role did they play in provincial management?
Caretaker. They were appointed to manage specific problems and report directly to him.
What advice did Trajan give Pliny concerning Christians in Bthlynia?
Don’t get involved.
What wish did the senate give to all new emperors after Trajan? In general what is Trajan’s posthumous reputation?
Luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan. It is very good.
What principle guided Hadrian in establishing a line of succession?
A regional dynasty, from Southern Gaul and Spain.
Compare the policies of Trajan and Hadrian on the issue of Roman expansionism.
He focused on consolidation, withdrew troops from remote territories.
Why did the Jews revolt during Hadrian’s reign? Hadrian’s response? Name on consequence of the revolt’s supressions for Jews.
He established a roman veteran colony and prohibited circumcision. Judea was renamed syria palestina and the jews were prohibited from entering Jerusalm.
Why did Hadrian construct a mausolem? What earlier Roman emperor constructed a mausoleum?
Augustus. Indicates his dynastic intentions.
How did Hadrian die?
He dies from depression and going on a food and drinking binge
What sort of interest did Marcus Aurelius have in philosophy? How did he engage with philosophy while on campaign?
He was a stoic philosopher. Wrote meditations.
What attitude did Marcus Aurelius have about being emepror? What talents did he bring into office?
Reluctant to become emperor. He was effective and good at delegating.
Who was Faustina? What was her claim to fame?
1st cousin of Marcus Aurelius. Had 13 of Marcus Aurelius’ children.
Who succeeded Marcus Aurelius as emperor? How did this succession alter the principle of succesion that had operated since Trajan?
Commodus. It ended the line of “adopted” emperors.
What role did the aqueduct play for the disposal of human waste?
Development of sophisticated method for hygenic waste disposa.
When was the cloaca maxima constructed? What was its original purpose?
600 BC to drain low lying swamps
What was a cesspit? Why was this mode of waste dispoal less preferable in Rome?
Hole dug in ground people dumped wate in there. They didn’t work well when flooding happened.
What advantage was there to the circular construction in a latrine?
it reduced fecal stench
Name two ways that a Roman might cleanse himself post-defecation.
water jug. stick with sea sponge on end. shells.
When were sewer lines extended to private homes? What did Romans do if they did not have a toilet at home?
100 AD. They used pee pots and commodes.
Name two ways that urine was used. How was it collected?
fertilizer, antiseptic, leather production
Jars in front of shops for collections, vespasian’s urine tax.
Who were the stercorarii? What did they do?
Dung collectors who charged families to empty their cesspits and sold it as fertilizer
Who cleaned the sewers? Describe some of the dangers of this job.
Slaves, POW’s, convicts. Poisonous gas, rats, vermin.
Name two ways that the Romans warded off toilet demons.
“pooper beware of demons” god wishes to the pooper. pooping pygmies.

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