Art and Arc lvl 3 nz

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What is the height of ‘Patrician carrying Busts’?
1.65m
What is the date of ‘Patrician carrying Busts’?
end of 1st century BC to beginning of 1st century AD
What is ‘Patrician carrying Busts’ made of?
Marble
Verism is used to portray what three qualities?
Age, Experience, Authority.
What are some veristic features of ‘Patrician carrying Busts’?
balding, large ears, large nose, sunken cheeks etc.
What style is ‘Patrician carrying Busts’?
Veristic
Who was Commodus’ father?
Marcus Aurelius
What style is ‘Bust of Commodus’in?
Antonine Baroque
What features of ‘Bust of Commodus’ are particularly Antonine Baroque?
Larger than life dimension, highly dramatic, elaborate etc
Dimensions of ‘Bust of Commodus’
1.18m
Date of ‘Bust of Commodus’
190 AD
What is ‘Bust of Commodus’ made of?
Marble
What 3 particular objects link ‘Bust of Commodus’ with Hercules?
Apples, Lion skin, club
What links the ‘Bust of Commodus’ with Perseus?
Shield with gorgon
Why does Commodus try to link himself with Hercules? (‘Bust of Commodus’)
-Trying to be divine, heroic, immortal
-Compensate for being bad ruler (had damaged Rome – civil war
-He was a crazy meglomaniac
What does the Cornucopia (horns of plenty) symbolise?
fertility prosperity and wealth
links to the golden age of Rome
What warrior tribe is represented on the ‘Bust of Commodus’?
Amazons
Date of ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’
244-249 AD
Dimensions of ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’
71cm
Material for ‘Bust of Philip The Arabian’
Marble (unpolished)
What style is ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’
Veristic
What facial features on ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’ reflect semitic heritage?
big nose, strong jawline, prominent cheekbones.
Where was Philip the Arabian from?
Syria
What was Rome like during the rule of Philip the Arabian?
turbulent, unrest – economic, religious, military, political.
Why is ‘Bust of Philip of the Arabian’ verisitic?
worn face a sign of nobility, dignity, strength (A.E.A)
How is ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’ veristic?
chunky stone, semitic features – realistic,wrinkles, pursed lips.
What toga is ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’ wearing?
Contabulata
Why is ‘Bust of Philip the Arabian’ wearing what he is wearing?
Contabulata – citizens toga – one of the people. Propaganda
What does classical Historian Wheeler say about Philip the Arabian?
shifty, furtive, opportunistic
What does classical Historian Hannah say about Philip the Arabian?
cared about his people
Two styles of Roman Sculpture
Idealistic, Veristic
What is a Patrician?
Ruling, elite class of Rome
Two different influences on Roman Temples
etruscan and Greek
Three orders of capitals
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
What are engaged columns?
columns which attached to a wall – give the appearance of full columns
Etruscan and Roman temples place importance on what aspect of the temple?
the frontal aspect
In a Greek temple which side is more important?
all sides are equally important
What is the cella?
central room of a temple
Another name for the inner shrine
Adyton
Another name for the Adyton
Inner shrine
Name for the level which the columns stand on
Stylobate
Parts of the entablature
Frieze, Architrave, Cornice
Front part of the temple roof
Pediment
two types of column
fluted, unfluted
Nickname for the Maison Carree
the square house
date of the Maison Carree
18-16 BC
Who is the Maison Carree dedicated to?
Lucius and Gaius
What style is the Maison Carree?
hexastyle – 6 columns
Define pseudo-peripteral
the appearance of a surrounding colonnade given by engaged columns
Where is the Temple of Bacchus located
Baalbek, Lebanon
Date of temple of Bacchus
150-250 AD
Why is the temple of Bacchus named after Bacchus?
sculptural reliefs representing birth, events in life.
Why is the Temple of Bacchus in Lebanon?
Trying to include the far-out regions of Rome
Displaying grandeur of Rome
Non-roman influences on the Temple of Bacchus
adyton, use of local stone, surrounding colonnade
in the Temple of Bacchus what sensation do the niches and internal colonnade add to?
sense of movement
Inscription on the Pantheon?
Marcus Agrippa built this…
Where is the Maison Carree?
Nimes, Southern France
Who built the Maison Carree?
Marcus Agrippa
How many times has the Pantheon been rebuilt?
3 (domitian, Trajan, Hadrian)
Who built the FIRST Pantheon?
Marcus Agrippa
Whose Pantheon stands today?
Hadrians
date of the current pantheon
118-128 AD
how many cornices does the Pantheon have
3
Who is the Pantheon dedicated to?
All gods – planetary Gods
How did the Pantheon survive?
became a christian church
What are the capitals on the Pantheon?
Corinthian
What are the unfluted columns on the Pantheon made of?
Granite
What are one of the finest features of the Maison Carree?
tall slender fluted columns
What sensation is created inside the pantheon as well as inside The Temple of Bacchus?
sensation of movement
What, in the Pantheon, is the oculus?
hole in the roof
How wide is the Pantheons oculus?
9m
How is the rain drained in the Pantheon?
floor is slightly curved
what techniques reduce the weight of the Pantheons rotunda
dome gets thinner,recessed coffers, lighter materials
Materials used in the Pantheon
tufa, pumice, travertine, brick, cement
name the three different sections of the Pantheon
Rotunda, porch, vestibule
Some believe the patheon is ….
disjointed
important stone at the top of an arch
keystone
define vault
a series of arches
low relief vs high relief
carved out slightly vs carved out deeply
what is a relief sculpture?
carving onto the surface of a material
Who built the Arch of Titus?
Domitian
Who was Domitian to Titus
brother
What type of arch is the Arch of Titus?
Triumphal arch
What is the date of the Arch of Titus?
81-96 AD
Who was Domitian and Titus dad?
Vespasian
What is the location of the arch of Titus?
close to the highest point on the Via Sacra (sacred way)which descends into the forum.
What is on the spandrels of the Arch of Titus?
Winged victories
What event is being depicted on the Arch of Titus?
Victory procession – victory over Jerusalem.
What is being depicted on the south panel of the arch of titus?
Soldiers carrying spoils of war
What is the main focus of the south panel of the Arch of Titus?
Menorah
What Dynasty were Domitian, Titus and Vespasian part of?
Flavian
How does the sculptor of the Arch of Titus make it look more realistic?
sense of movement – varies between high and low relief, 3/4 view, heads bob up and down.
To pass through the arch of titus was an act of…
atonement and purification
What is depicted on the North panel of the arch of titus
The triumphant general celebrating victory and being crowned by a winged victory with a corona triumphalis.
Why is the North panel on the Arch of titus significant?
first time divinities and humans depicted together.
What makes the scene on the north panel of the arch of Titus allegorical?
helmeted amazonian virtus, personification of valour, genius of the people.
What is different about the capitals on the arch of Titus?
First appearance of composite capitals – ionic, corinthian
What is depicted on the facade of the arch of Titus?
opotheosis of Titus – becoming a God
Propaganda of arch of Titus
designed to be walked through along the sacred way, emphasising the greatness of the flavians – the genius of the people (supported by the people), divine approval of the gods – accompanying Titus.
How many arches in the Arch of Constantine?
3
Arch of Constantine is similar in style to which other arch?
Septimus Severus’ arch
Date of the Arch of Constantine
312-315
Arch of Constantine is the …. triumphal arch built in Rome
last
Who was the Arch of constantine built by?
Constantine
What was the arch of Constantine celebrating?
Constantine freeing the state from the tyrant Maxentius
What on the Arch of Constantine is taken from Trajan?
Dacian captive statues
What on the Arch of Constantine is taken from Hadrian?
Roundrels – depict hunts and sacrifices
What on the Arch of Constantine is taken from Marcus Aurelius?
panels in the attic
Why does The arch of Constantine have stolen sculptures on it?
to link Constantine to the great emperors and victorious generals.
What was Constantine the first emperor to do?
become a christian
Arch of Constantine – what is depicted on the North side?
constantine addresses the forum and gives out money
Arch of Constantine – what is depicted on the east side?
constantine enters Rome in triumph
Arch of Constantine – what is depicted on the south side?
seige of verona, battle where Maxentius died (battle of the milvian bridge)
Arch of Constantine – what is depicted on the west side?
constantines army leaving Milan.
What does Ara Pacis mean?
Altar of peace
date of the Ara Pacis
13-9 BC
who built the Ara Pacis
Augustus
Where was the Ara Pacis originally?
field of Mars
Why was the original location of the Ara Pacis ironic
Mars = war, Ara Pacis = peace
What is the overall message of the Ara Pacis?
a new age of peace and fertility has been instituted by Augustus
outer lower register of the Ara Pacis
intricate floral design, acanthus, flowers, birds, insects, snakes = fertility
What are the symbols are sacrifice in the Ara Pacis?
bull skulls, garlands
What are the two reliefs on the west side of the Ara Pacis?
Roma, Aeneas
What are the two reliefs on the east side of the Ara Pacis?
Tellus, Roma
Theme of the Tellus relief (Ara Pacis)
fertility and prosperity
What is depicted on the north and south sides of the Ara Pacis?
an historical procession
Who is on the north side of the Ara Pacis?
the senators wearing wreaths
Who is on the south side of the Ara Pacis?
children (familial procession)
What do the children on the Ara Pacis represent?
Augustus’ policies to try and increase birth rates and the importance of families
How did Bust of Philip the Arabian show anxiety?
pursed lips, looking up for divine guidance but facing down, contemplative.

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